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Coursework essay titles

You should choose TWO essay titles, one from each of the following lists. Credit will be given for appropriate musical quotations and detailed musical references.

Before embarking on your essay, please discuss it with your personal tutor. Don't feel you are working on your own. Guidelines for the presentation of essays, including information on how to set out footnotes and bibliographies, are given in the ‘Study Skills’ section on the Department website. Remember that essays should be typed or word-processed, all references must be fully acknowledged, and they must be accompanied by a full bibliography of all sources consulted.

If you are anxious about essay writing at university level, we recommend that you read

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/english/current-undergraduates/further-resources/reading-english.pdf (there is lots here that is only relevant to English students, but the ideas about essay writing might be very helpful). There are also Faculty of Arts Writing Fellows whose job is to advise students on essay writing. Use them! http://www.bristol.ac.uk/music/currentstudents/facultywritingfellows.html


LIST 1 (Early Polyphony) [by 12 noon on Friday, 11 November, 2011]

1. The rhythmic modes made composition possible on a scale and with a level of complexity that had never been seen before in the Medieval West. Discuss, using a range of musical illustrations to justify your response.

2. What problems are there with existing scholarly narratives about the lives and works of Leonin and Perotin? (there is a reading list and some advice on Blackboard for this essay question)

3. Is 12th-century polyphony still of aesthetic value, or is it an historical and analytical curiosity?

4. How did Notre Dame polyphony interact with the pre-existing liturgy? (for this essay title there is a short focused reading list on Blackboard, which would get you pointed in the right direction)

5. In what ways does an appreciation of Notre Dame polyphony as the product of an oral culture force us to reconsider the standard text book narrative about the repertoire?

6. Is it helpful to trace changes in early medieval notational practice in terms of a gradual improvement? (for this essay title there is some advice on Blackboard, which would get you pointed in the right direction)

LIST 2 (The Italian Renaissance (c.1450-1600) [by noon on Friday, 16 December, 2010]

1. Did the advent of music printing herald the beginning of the renaissance?
[I hope you like the seasonal tone of this question, but suggest that you do not replace the word "beginning" with the word "nativity", tempting as it is, because your tutor is likely to think that you have lost the plot. Use the printing reading list in the unit booklet and the beginning-of-the-renaissance reading list from the first renaissance lecture.]

3. What purpose is served by the modern scholarly concentration on the genre characteristics of the early Italian madrigal? (there is further advice relating to this essay question on blackboard)

4. What roles did women play in 15th- or 16th-century western musical culture?

5. "The genesis of the madrigal is known: the transformation of the frottola from an accompanied song with a supporting bass and two inner voices serving as ‘fillers’ into a motet-like polyphonic construction with four parts of equal importance, can be followed as easily as the transformation of a chrysalis into a butterfly" (Einstein, 1949). Discuss.

6. What musical, cultural and financial circumstances caused the madrigal to develop at Italian courts during the early 16th century?

7. Trace developments in the madrigal at the courts of Ferrara and Florence up to c.1590, mentioning key patrons and composers and giving musical examples.

Workload for this unit

The University’s published guidelines on credit weightings assume that a 20-credit unit should involve students in approximately 200 hours of student effort (the figures are less prescriptive with respect to a 40-credit unit spread over the entire academic year but could be assumed to be roughly pro rata). We advise that in addition to the contact time in tutorial meetings (approximately 30 minutes once a fortnight), you spend on average 3 hours of preparation time for each tutorial (including completion of required bibliographies, drafts, background reading, etc, as arranged with the tutor concerned), the remainder to be made up of research time for and production of the submitted project.


Students are required to attend all lectures and other classes related to their units. When they are unable to do so because of illness or other good cause, it is their responsibility to inform the lecturer and to make up any work missed. Student attendance at these classes is monitored for pastoral and administrative purposes not disciplinary or credit purposes.

Award of Credit Points

Credit points are awarded on the basis of the following criteria:

  • completion of all required work, whether for formative or summative purposes, on time and to the specified length

  • achievement of a satisfactory standard (normally a mark of 40 or above) in the summative assessment for the unit

  • attendance at any classes, seminars or tutorials, and/or participation in any activities, which are identified in the unit documentation as a pre-requisite for the award of credit

  • completion of any other tasks or activities that are identified in the unit documentation as pre-requisites for the award of credit


The unit will be delivered in a series of weekly lectures, on Thursdays at 11 a.m. in Victoria’s Room.

Week 1 (Thursday, 13 October) What is Music History at University?

Studying music history at university used to be a matter of getting to know the approved body of notated musical works written by dead white males from Léonin to Schoenberg and beyond, and learning how to say something intelligent, individual and technical about such pieces of music.

It is and it isn't still as simple as that. It is, in that if no-one passes on and refreshes the knowledge, it will get lost, and so perhaps will the music. It isn't, in that the 'works' by dead white males can no longer pretend to represent the whole authoritative scheme of things, as Nick Cook's Very Short Introduction makes engagingly clear.

So what is a music historian today? And why do you have to be one?


Nicholas Cook: Music: a very short introduction (Oxford, 1998) ASSL: ML160 COO

If you get interested, look also at

Michael Talbot’s The musical work: reality or invention? ASSL: ML38.L5 MUS

Leo Treitler, ‘What sort of story is history?’ in Music and the Historical Imagination ASSL: ML3797 TRE [and on EReserves]

and then ask your tutor for more ideas!

Sub-unit 1: Early Medieval Polyphony

Week 2 [Monday 17 October 2011 NOTE DIFFERENT DAY!] early polyphony, and notating polyphony

  • early medieval notation. What it tells us (and what it doesn’t). Exploring notational practices as fit-for-purpose rather than as part of an evolutionary time line with the goal of notational perfection in (say) 1750. Re-considering the firm dividing line between oral and literate musical cultures

  • an introduction to some of the earliest polyphony (Winchester, Chartres). Why doesn’t it get into the canon? How does the music work?

  • the role of chant in the medieval liturgy and in polyphony

Before the lecture, it would be a good idea to read some or all of [all library shelfmarks are in the resources list at the end of the unit handbook; lots of this material is on EReserves]

Crocker and Hiley, New Oxford History of Music: the early middle ages to 1300 (Oxford, 1990), 485-528

McKinnon, Man and Music: Antiquity and the Middle Ages, chapter 6

Burkholder/Grout/Palisca History of Western Music (eighth edition, 2010), pages 32-6; 84-9

Taruskin, Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century, 147-56

Hendrik Van der Werf, ‘Early Western Polyphony’, in Knighton and Fallows (eds.), Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music (London, 1992), 107-113

And listen to CDs like [all these are in SARC]

Christmas in Royal Anglo-Saxon Winchester Schola Gregoriana directed by Mary Berry

Abbo Abbas: French and English polyphony from around 1000 Dialogos, Katerina Livljanic (2009)

1000: A Mass for the End of Time Anonymous 4

Vox Prophetica Musica Disciplina CD1905


Tuesday 18 October, 6pm in the Wills Building Reception room. I will be giving a lecture called “Inscribed on the heart: the power of medieval music”. Musical examples will be sung by the music department schola cantorum – come along and support the schola girls! More details here: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/arts/festival Admission free, but booking via the festival webpage is highly recommended.

Week 3 [27 October 2011] polyphonic repertoires: Aquitaine, the Codex Calixtinus and Notre Dame

  • how ‘St Martial’ polyphony turned into ‘Aquitanian’ polyphony – changes in historical approaches in the late 20th century.

  • A close look at O adiutor – problems with interpreting the notation. Different performances.

  • The musical language (how far can we access harmonic language?)

  • The codex calixtinus – the earliest Lonely Planet guide to the Pyrenees (with songs! By bishops! [allegedly])

  • Contrafacts and the Work concept

  • An introduction to Notre Dame cathedral and its polyphony

Before the lecture, it would be a good idea to read some or all of [lots of this is on EReserves]

Crocker and Hiley, New Oxford History of Music: the early middle ages to 1300 (Oxford, 1990), 528-48 and chapter 12

Burkholder/Grout/Palisca History of Western Music (eighth edition, 2010), pages 89-102

Taruskin, Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century, 156-205

And listen to CDS in SARC like…

Aquitania. Sequentia (Deutsche Harmonia Mundi 1997) [in SARC]

The Age of Cathedrals: Music from the Magnus Liber Organi Theatre of Voices (Harmonia Mundi, 1996) CD726

Perotin, The Hilliard Ensemble (ECM, 1989), CD635

Perotin and the Ars Antiqua The Hilliard Ensemble (Coro, 1997) CD 1679

La Fete des Fous Obsidienne (Calliope, 2006) CD1680

Paris 1200 Lionheart (Nimbus, 2003) CD1716

Music for the Lionhearted King Gothic Voices CD640

Music of the Middle Ages, Early Music Consort CD1267

Discover early Music CD1536-7

Music of the Gothic Era Early Music Consort CD1719-20

On Naxos:

LEONIN / PEROTIN: Sacred Music from Notre-Dame Cathedral (Tonus peregrinus)

Choral Concert: - PEROTIN / LEONIN (Chant and Polyphony from 12th Century France) Lionheart

Jerusalem Discantus

GREGORIAN CHANT AND MEDIEVAL POLYPHONY (L'Arbre de Jesse) (Ensemble Gilles Binchois)

Compostela ad vesperas sancti iacobi (Ensemble Organum, Peres) NB Naxos has a quite random typo that the Codex Calixtinus is 17th century!

And now, right now this minute, get yourself on a train to London to go and hear Professor Bonnie Blackburn FBA (University of Oxford) give a lecture entitled “Myself When Young: Becoming a Musician in Renaissance Italy - or Not”

Thursday 27 October, 6.00pm - 7.15pm, followed by a drinks reception

The British Academy, 10 Carlton House Terrace, London, SW1Y 5AH

http://www.britac.ac.uk/events/2011/Myself_When_Young.cfm has a summary of the lecture and it looks just fab (she is also lovely, and a really good speaker). The lecture will be illustrated by music examples performed by The Marian Consort, directed by Rory McCleery. Registration is not required for this event. Attendance is free and seats will be allocated upon arrival. The 1530 train gets you to Paddington at 1714; any later and you’ll be cutting it fine, dear (what, am I your mother or something?).

Week 4 [3 November 2011] a close look at Notre Dame polyphony

  • biography and great composers – how are Leonin and Perotin bearing up?

  • a close look at musical style (the Alleluia Posui adiutorium)

Before the lecture,

1. Get to know the alleluia posui adiutorium really well, by listening to it several times (it is on Perotin, The Hilliard Ensemble (ECM, 1989), CD635)

and following the score. BRING A COPY OF THE SCORE TO THE LECTURE – you need to print it off from EReserves

2. prepare yourself through reading and listening to take an active part in discussing this question:

How many completely different narratives about the role of Leonin and Perotin can you encounter in the scholarly literature, based on exactly the same data? Which narrative do you think is the best?

The really important ones to compare are in Taruskin Music from the Earliest Notations to the sixteenth century, J. Peter Burkholder (Palisca/Grout) A History of Western Music (eighth edn, 2010 – not the earlier editions, or only for comparative purposes) and Craig Wright, ‘Leoninus, Poet and Musician’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 39 (1986), 1-35.

Also, look at the text-book accounts in Crocker and Hiley, McKinnon, GroveOnline, and maybe some more old-fashioned books like Hoppin Medieval Music, Caldwell, Medieval Music and Reese Music in the Middle Ages

If you are very keen, you could look also at Christopher Page, The Owl and the Nightingale (chapter 6) and also Craig Wright, Music and Ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris [especially chapters 7, 8, and 9], also the first chapter of Anna Maria Busse Berger, Medieval Music and the Art of Memory. Look at reviews of each of these books to see what other people thought of the narratives put forward (go to www.jstor.org and put in the author’s name and book title, and lots of reviews will be among the search results).


The whole repertory is edited in Le Magnus Liber Organi de Notre Dame de Paris (Arts and Social Sciences Library: M2.3.F7.P3). The set work, Alleluia Posui adiutorium is in volume 1, pages 189-94. You need to borrow or make a copy of this and bring it to the lecture in week 4. There are some authorised photocopies in ASSL; it is also on EReserves.

Don’t forget to look up reviews of the specialist books on JSTOR – that can often be a way to help you understand what the author is aiming at before you dive in. In bibliographies, a journal article will be ‘in quotation marks’ and the name of the journal In Italics. Look up the name of the journal in the library catalogue, not the name of the author or the article title! Most journals are on JSTOR, and there you can put in the author’s name and it should spit the article out at you.

There is more reading on this list than you will have time for. The idea is that you should dip into most of the books and articles (and reviews of the books) so that you can get an idea of what interests you most, and then pursue that. If your interests are leading you in a direction not really covered here, then ASK FOR HELP!!!

Remember that some books will be up on the top floor of the Arts and Social Sciences library (ASSL), but others will be on the ground floor in the short loan collection. And, like I said, lots of it is on limited preview on Googlebooks, or extracts of it are in EReserves, which you access via Blackboard (https://www.ole.bris.ac.uk).

General reading

J. Peter Burkholder (revising Claude Palisca revising Donald Grout) A History of Western Music (eighth edn, 2010). It’s very limited – just a few pages on our whole topic – but you might find it a useful place to look things up if you happen to own it. DO NOT READ THE OLD EDITIONS OF THIS BOOK – they are terribly dated.

John Caldwell, Medieval Music (London: Hutchinson, 1978) [NB really dated. It was written before you were born, probably. But it’s interesting to see how much more has been understood in the last 30 years ] ASSL: ML172 CAL

Richard Hoppin: Medieval Music (New York: Norton, 1978). [treat like Caldwell!] ASSL: ML172 HOP

Tess Knighton and David Fallows (eds.): Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music (London: MacMillan, 1992) ASSL: ML172 COM

James McKinnon (ed), Antiquity and the Middle Ages (London: MacMillan, 1990) (especially the polyphony chapters) ASSL: ML162 ANT

NewGroveOnline – get there through OxfordMusicOnline and have a good explore around the key words of the module

Embellishing the liturgy :tropes and polyphony edited by Alejandro Planchart (Aldershot, 2009) ASSL: ML3082 EMB

Gustave Reese Music in the Middle Ages (New York: Norton, 1940) [yes, 1940. You might want to look at this to see how ideas have changed since your great grandparents were young, not because it’s accurate!] ASSL: ML172 REE

Bernard Sherman, Inside Early Music: Conversations with Performers (Oxford: OUP, 1997) section 1, on Medieval Music, Plainchant and “otherness” ASSL: ML457 SHE

Richard Taruskin, Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century (Oxford, 2010: The Oxford History of Western Music vol 1) ASSL: ML160 TAR

Christopher Page, The Christian West and its singers : the first thousand years (2010) ASSL: ML2902 PAG

Early Polyphony reading

On Winchester polyphony, the authoritative account is now Susan Rankin, The Winchester Troper. Facsimile Edition and Introduction (London, 2007). ASSL: Folio M2060.E4

Susan Rankin, ‘Winchester Polyphony: the early theory and practice of organum’, in Rankin and Hiley (eds.), Music in the Medieval English Liturgy (Oxford, 1993). ASSL: ML3031.2 MUS

Richard Crocker and David Hiley (eds.), New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1990), Sarah Fuller chapter. ASSL: ML160 OXF

Sarah Fuller, ‘The myth of ‘Saint Martial’ polyphony: a study of the sources’, Musica disciplina 33 (1979), 5-26 [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR]

Sarah Fuller, ‘Hidden polyphony – a reappraisal’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 24 (1971), 169-92 [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR]

Rachel Golden Carlson, ‘Striking Ornaments: Complexities of Sense and Song in Aquitanian 'Versus'’, Music and Letters 84 (2003), 527-56 [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR]. This has a really useful first couple of pages. Then it is all about text until page 546, where the musical analysis starts. Only read the bit in the middle if you are interested in exploring what sorts of texts these songs have!

Rachel Golden Carson, ‘Two Paths to Daniel's Mountain: Poetic-Musical Unity in Aquitanian Versus’ The Journal of Musicology, 23 (2006), 620-646 [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR] [this one gets to the musical elements very fast!]

There’s a whole big debate about how to edit and perform and understand this sort of music. A good place to start might be near the end of the conversation: try Theodore Karp, ‘Evaluating Performances and Editions of Aquitanian Polyphony’, Acta Musicologica, 71 (1999), pp. 19-49 [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR], and work your way backwards through the footnotes. His book The Polyphony of St Martial (1993) is worth browsing briefly, and then read lots of reviews of it on JSTOR to get a sense of how complex the arguments are in this area!

Bonderup, Jens.: The Saint Martial polyphony :texture and tonality : a contribution to research in the development of polyphonic style in the middle ages (Copenhagen,  1982) ASSL: ML174 BON

Look at the English articles in Le Polifonie primitive in friuli e in Europa ed. Cesare Corsi and Pierluigi Petrobelli (Rome, 1989).

Roesner, Edward H., ‘The Codex Calixtinus and the Magnus liber organi: Some preliminary observations’ AND Sarah Fuller, ‘Perspectives on musical notation in the Codex Calixtinus’) BOTH IN El Códice Calixtino y la música de su tiempo (2001)

Van der Werf, Hendrik, The oldest extant part music and the origin of Western polyphony (1993). ASSL: Oversize ML172 WER

Notre Dame reading

Anna Maria Busse Berger, Medieval Music and the Art of Memory (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005) [don’t get bogged down in the first part, make sure you look at Part II] ASSL: ML172 BER

Richard Crocker and David Hiley (eds.), New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1990), Janet Knapp chapter

Mark Everist, ‘From Paris to St Andrews: The Origins of W1’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 43 (1990), 1-42. [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR]

Guillaume Gross, ‘Organum at Notre-Dame in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries: Rhetoric in words and music’, Plainsong and Medieval Music 15 (2006), 87-108 ASSL: Serial ML170.P5

Steven C. Immel, ‘The Vatican Organum Treatise Re-Examined’, Early Music history 20 (2001), 121-72 [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR]

Christopher Page, Discarding Images (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), chapter 1 ASSL: ML270.2 PAG

Christopher Page, The Owl and the Nightingale (London: Dent, 1989) ASSL:
ML270.2 PAG

Thomas B. Payne, ‘Aurelianis civitas: Student Unrest in Medieval France and a Conductus by Philip the Chancellor’, Speculum 75 (2000), 589-614. [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR]

Edward H. Roesner, ‘Who made the Magnus Liber?’, Early Music History, 20 (2001), 227-266. [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR]

Craig Wright, Music and Ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris, 500-1500 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989) [especially chapters 7, 8 and 9] ML3027.8.P2 WRI

Craig Wright, ‘Leoninus, Poet and Musician’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 39 (1986), 1-35. . [IT’S ONLINE ON JSTOR]

Edward Roesner, General Preface to Le Magnus Liber Organi de Notre Dame de

Paris vol 1: Les Quadrupla et Tripla de Paris (Monaco, 1993) Arts and Social Sciences Library: M2.3.F7.P3

Sub-unit 2: The Italian Renaissance (c.1450-1600)


Traditionally viewed as a period characterised by the rediscovery of western civilisation's classical roots (renaissance literally means 'rebirth'), this period defies simple categorisation. Side-by-side with almost unimaginable wealth was abject poverty; widespread ignorance and illiteracy abounded in an age dominated by the love of books and the remarkable explosion of the medium of print; barbarity jostled for control with civilisation; secular ascendancy threatened the established position of the church. It is against such a backdrop that the music of the time was conceived, written and performed. We will focus on Italian courtly culture, and particularly the secular musical genre of the madrigal.

Week 5 (Thursday, 10 November): Concepts of the Renaissance

An introduction to possible meanings of the renaissance in music. Problems with (and opportunities afforded by) periodisation.

Before the class, start to explore The idea of ‘the Renaissance’ in the reading list below. There is more bibliography on the handout (which will be distributed in the class, but is already on blackboard)

Week 6 (Thursday, 17 November): early 16th-century Italy

In this class, we begin to zoom in on the secular musical cultures of early 16th-century Italy. We will explore the impact of printing and publishing. We will look at the Italian city states, and their patronage systems. We will explore some of the musical styles around at the beginning of the 16th century, looking in particular at the way the humanist philosophy was expressed musically.

Before the class, start to explore the reading lists below on courts and printing.


Saturday 19 November, 11.30am. Public workshop on Gregorian chant led by Emma Hornby at St Mary Redcliffe church, Bristol. Workshop fee £4 for students. To reserve your place, please give me cash or a cheque (payable to Dr Emma Hornby) together with your name and contact details. Obviously, there will be no charge for members of schola (who will be helping to lead the workshop).

The workshop will be followed by first vespers at 5.30pm for Christ the King, in Latin, performed by the workshop participants with the Music Department Schola Cantorum. The service will be led by the Priest-in-Charge, the Revd. Dr. Simon Taylor; admission free - all welcome. If you don’t want to sing, I recommend that you come along to this part of the event as a minimum.

Our last workshop+performance at St Mary Redcliffe got really positive feedback (http://www.bristol.ac.uk/music/unimusicmaking/sc.html and scroll down till you get to it), so don’t miss the opportunity to get inside something that feels a bit like medieval liturgy!


Christopher Page (yes, the Christopher Page) will be giving a lecture entitled 'Regency medievalism and the Early-Romantic guitar' at 415pm. It is billed as being “student friendly”; he is going to have a tame tenor with him; it’s hosted by the English department, and I will email you all to tell you the venue as soon as I know it. Highly recommended.

Week 8: Wednesday 30 November in the Auditorium: University Singers concert, conducted by David Allinson and David Bednall. Programme includes Tudor sacred music by Taverner, Tallis and Byrd. Admission free.

Week 8 (Thursday, 1 December): A close look at some Italian madrigals.

The madrigal is the most important secular vocal genre of the Renaissance. The preceeding lectures explored the intellectual and institutional contexts which gave it birth. Today we look in detail at the music written in the north Italian courts, where radical humanism and generous patronage of the arts allowed composers to experiment – to push the limits of what polyphony could express, poetically and emotionally – until it was almost at bereaking point. We will examine the origins of the madrigal (which are hotly disputed by musicologists) and then explore the achievements of key composers, including Verdelot, Arcadelt and Willaert.

Before the class: Make a start on the Italian madrigal reading below. Sing through some of the madrigals in the Oxford Book of Italian madrigals, with your friends  If you don’t sing, then listen to some recordings. There are loads on Naxos. Just look up the composer and song name from the Oxford Book of Italian madrigals

Useful Reading for all three renaissance classes:

European music, 1520-1640  edited by James Haar. (2006). [highly recommended!] ASSL: ML240.2 EUR

Kisby, Fiona, Music and musicians in Renaissance cities and towns .ASSL: ML172 MUS

Blackburn, Bonnie J.: Composition, printing and performance :studies in Renaissance music (Aldershot : Ashgate, 2000) ASSL: ML172 BLA

Allan W. Atlas, Renaissance Music: Music in Western Europe, 1400-1600 (New York, 1998) ASSL: ML172 ATL

T. Knighton & D. Fallows (eds.), A Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music (London, 1992) ASSL: ML172 COM

Leeman L. Perkins, Music in the Age of the Renaissance (New York, 1999) ASSL: ML172 PER

I. Fenlon (ed.), Man and Music: The Renaissance (London, 1990) ASSL: ML172 REN

G. Reese, Music in the Renaissance (New York, 1954/ rev. 1977) ASSL: ML172 REE nb be aware of how old this is!

H.M. Brown, Music in the Renaissance (Englewood Cliffs, NJ.,1976)ASSL: ML172 BRO

N. Machiavelli, The Prince ASSL: JC143.M14

Richard Taruskin, Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century (Oxford, 2010: The Oxford History of Western Music vol 1) ASSL: ML160 TAR

The idea of ‘the Renaissance’

Several of the general books above have useful introductions to the idea of the renaissance. Try also:

‘Renaissance’ in NewGroveOnline

Jessie Ann Owens, ‘Music Historiography and the definition of the Renaissance’, Notes 47 (1990) 305-30

Reinhard Strohm, The Rise of European Music (1993) ASSL: ML240.2 STR

Rob Wegman, The Crisis of Music in early modern Europe 1470-1530 (2008) ASSL:
(If this interests you, also try Patrick MAcey, Bonfire songs: Savonarola's musical legacy (1999).

And (for contrast)

Edward Lowinsky, ‘Music in the Culture of the Renaissance’, in Music in the Culture of the Renaissance and other essays (1991), 1: 19-39 ASSL: Oversize ML160 LOW

Italian Madrigal

Grove: ‘Frottola’; ‘Madrigal, §II’

Anthony M. Cummings, The Maecenas And The Madrigalist: Patrons, Patronage, And The Origins Of The Italian Madrigal (2004) ASSL ML290.8 CUM [on FULL VIEW on Googlebooks]

James Haar, Essays on Italian poetry and music in the Renaissance, 1350-1600 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1986), chapter 3 [on FULL VIEW on Googlebooks]

McClary, Susan, Modal subjectivities :self-fashioning in the Italian madrigal (Berkeley, Calif., 2004) ASSL: ML2633 MAC

Tim Carter Music in late renaissance and early baroque Italy (Portland, 1992), chapter 6 ASSL: ML290.2 CAR

Jerome Roche the Italian Madrigal (2nd edn, 1990) ASSL: ML2633 

Iain Fenlon, James Haar, The Italian madrigal in the early sixteenth century: sources and interpretation (1988) ASSL: ML2633 FEN

Albert Einstein, The Italian Madrigal (NB this is long and pretty hard work AND very old fashioned. You are probably better off reading what more recent scholars think of his work, e.g. Fenlon and Haar) ASSL: Oversize ML2633 EIN

If you get interested in the texts, try Dean Mace, ‘Pietro Bembo and the Literary Origins of the Italian Madrigal’, Musical Quarterly 55 (1969), 65-86

If you get interested in patronage, try Richard Agee, ‘Ruberto Strozzi and the Early Madrigal’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 36 (1983), 1-17 and ‘Filippo Strozzi and the Early Madrigal’, Journal of the American Musicological Society 38 (1985), 227-37

Feldman, Martha, City culture and the madrigal at Venice (1995) ASSL ML2633.8.V46 FEL

Macy, Laura, ‘Speaking of sex: Metaphor and performance in the Italian madrigal’, The journal of musicology 14 (1996) [access through JSTOR]

Flosin, Justin ‘On locating the courtesan in Italian lyric: Distance and the madrigal texts of Costanzo Festa’, The courtesan's arts: Cross-cultural perspectives. (2006) [in library – there are other useful essays in here too]

Burford, Mark Jon ‘Cipriano de Rore's canonic madrigals’, The journal of musicology 17 (1999) ) [access through JSTOR]

J. Haar: ‘The Florentine Madrigal, 1540–60’, in J.A. Owens and A. Cummings (eds.), Music in Renaissance cities and courts: studies in honor of Lewis Lockwood (Warren,MI, 1997), 141–51 [on order at library]

Printing and publishing

Bernstein, Jane A., Print culture and music in sixteenth-century Venice (Oxford, 2002). ASSL: ML3790 BER

Kate van Orden, Music and the cultures of print (2000) ASSL: ML112 VAN

Early music printing: Working for a specialized market’ Boorman, Stanley. Print and culture in the Renaissance: Essays on the advent of printing in Europe. (1986) ed. Tyson, Gerald P.; Wagonheim, Sylvia S.. ASSL: Z124 PRI (short loan collection)

Boorman, Stanley ‘What bibliography can do: Music printing and the early madrigal’, Music & letters, 72 (1991)

Music printing and publishing edited by D.W. Krummel and Stanley Sadie (New York, 1990) ASSL: ML112 MUS

J. Evan Kreider, The printing of music 1480-1680 (1980) [library shelfmark about to change!]

A. Hyatt King , Four hundred years of music printing (2nd ed. 1979) [library shelfmark about to change!]

Look up Music Printing in New GroveOnline

Iain Fenlon. Music, print and culture in early sixteenth-century Italy (1995) ASSL: ML290.2 FEN

Italian courts and cities

On key courts, use Grove entries for both the City and the leading aristocratic family:

‘Ferrara’ >> ‘Este’

‘Milan’ >> ‘Sforza’

‘Florence’ >> ‘Medici’

Juan Jose Carreras and Bernardo Garcia (eds) The royal chapel in the time of the Habsburgs: Music and ceremony in early modern European court. ASSL ML240 ROY

Lewis Lockwood, Music in Renaissance Ferrara 1400-1505 (Oxford, 1984) ASSL:
ML290.8.F45 LOC

Iain Fenlon, Music and patronage in sixteenth-century Mantua (Cambridge, 1980) ASSL: ML290.8.M16 FEN

Alberto F. Gallo Music in the Castle (1995) (just the bit about the 15th century – this is for back ground) ASLL ML290.2

Atlas, Allan W.: Music at the Aragonese court of Naples (Cambridge, 1985) |ASSL: ML290.8.N3 ATL

Christopher Hogwood, Music at court (1980) [lovely basic intro with lots of pretty pics!] [library shelfmark about to change]

Court festivals of the European Renaissance : art, politics, and performance / edited by J.R. Mulryne and Elizabeth Goldring. (2002) ASSL: GT4842 COU

Fenlon, Iain. The ceremonial city : history, memory and myth in renaissance Venice (2007), ASSL: DG678.235 FEN

Sherr, Richard.: Music and musicians in Renaissance Rome and other courts (1999) ASSL: ML3033.8.R66 SHE [esp. ch.xviii on Lorenzo Medici as patron]

Deborah Howard and Laura Moretti, Sound and space in Renaissance Venice : architecture, music, acoustics (2009) ASSL: NA5621.V5 HOW

N. Pirrotta, Music and culture in Italy from the Middle Ages to the Baroque (Cambridge, Mass., 1984) ASSL ML290.2 PIR

D. Mateer (ed.): Courts, patrons and poets [The Renaissance in Europe] (New Haven and London, 2000) ASSL CB361 REN

I. Fenlon: Music and culture in late Renaissance Italy (New York, 2002) [ordered for library; on Googlebooks]

H. G. Koenigsberger: ‘Republics and courts in Italian and European culture in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries’, Past and Present 83 (1979), 32-56

Merkley, P. and L.: Music and patronage in the Sforza court (Turnhout, 1999) [ordered for library]

Lubkin, Gregory: A Renaissance court: Milan under Galeazzo Maria Sforza (Berkeley, 1994) ASSL DG657.8 LUB

Prizer, William: ‘Music at the court of Sforza: the birth and death of a musical center’, Musica Disciplina xliii (1989), 141-93

A. Newcomb: The madrigal at Ferrara, 1579-1597 (Princeton, NJ, 1980) ASSL ML290.8F45 NEW

Sub-unit 3: The Baroque

Lecturer: David Allinson

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