Mission to mars




НазваниеMission to mars
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Solvency – Colonization – Terraforming


We Can Heat Up Mars-PFCs

Marinova 2001-(Margarita Marinova, NASA Ames Research Center) Global Warming on Mars http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast09feb_1/


Margarita Marinova, an undergraduate student at MIT, believes she has an answer to both problems: use artificially created perfluorocarbons (PFCs) to initiate the planetary warming process. Marinova has been studying the warming effects of PFCs, in collaboration with Chris McKay, a member of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the Ames Research Center. McKay was one of the organizers of the terraforming conference where Marinova presented her research. PFCs have several advantages. First, they are super-greenhouse gases. A little bit does a lot of warming. Second, PFCs have a very long lifetime. This causes serious problems on Earth, but their longevity would be a positive factor on Mars. Third, they do not have any negative effects on living organisms. Finally, unlike their chemical cousins, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), PFCs don't deplete ozone. Ozone in Earth's atmosphere provides protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is harmful to life. On Mars, building up an ozone layer in the atmosphere would be an important goal of terraformers. "You don't want to destroy ozone," says Marinova, "because it's a UV protector."


Terraforming Mars is Becoming More Feasible-Bacteria

Friedmann 2001-NASA Researcher(Imre Friedmann, Biology Professor, Director of Polar Desert Research Center) Greening Of The Red Planet science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast26jan_1/


On Earth, compost is made up primarily of decayed vegetable matter. Microorganisms play an important role in breaking down dead plants, recycling their nutrients back into the soil so that living plants can reuse them. But on Mars, says Friedmann, where there is no vegetation to decay, the dead bodies of the microorganisms themselves will provide the organic matter needed to build up the soil. The trick is finding the right microbe. "Among the organisms that are known today," says Friedmann, "Chroococcidiopsis is most suitable" for the task. Chroococcidiopsis is one of the most primitive cyanobacteria known. What makes it such a good candidate is its ability to survive in a wide range of extreme environments that are hostile to most other forms of life. Chroococcidiopsis has been found growing in hot springs, in hypersaline (high-salt) habitats, in a number of hot, arid deserts throughout the world, and in the frigid Ross Desert in Antarctica. "Chroococcidiopsis is the constantly appearing organism in nearly all extreme environments," Friedmann points out, "at least extreme dry, extreme cold, and extremely salty environments. This is the one which always comes up."


Terraforming Mars Is Possible-Different Methods and Steps

Zubrin 1999-Lockheed Martin Astronautics (Robert Zubrin, Bachelor Degree in Mathematics with a Masters and PhD in Nuclear Engineering, Works for Lockheed Martin Astronautics) The Economic Viability of Mars Colonization http://www.aleph.se/Trans/Tech/Space/mars.html


Potential methods of terraforming Mars have been discussed in a number of locations.5, 6. In the primary scenario, artificial greenhouse gases such as halocarbons are produced on Mars and released into the atmosphere. The temperature rise induced by the presence of these gases causes CO2 adsorbed in the regolith to be outgassed, increasing the greenhouse effect still more, causing more outgassing, etc. In reference 6 it was shown that a rate of halocarbon production of about 1000 tonnes per hour would directly induce a temperature rise of about 10 K on Mars, and that the outgassing of CO2 caused by this direct forcing would likely raise the average temperature on Mars by 40 to 50 K, resulting in a Mars with a surface pressure over 200 mbar and seasonal incidence of liquid water in the warmest parts of the planet. Production of halocarbons at this rate would require an industrial establishment on Mars wielding about 5000 MW or power supported by a division of labor requiring at least (assuming optimistic application of robotics) 10,000 people. Such an operation would be enormous compared to our current space efforts, but very small compared to the overall human economic effort even at present. It is therefore anticipated that such efforts could commence as early as the mid 21st Century, with a substantial amount of the outgassing following on a time scale of a few decades. While humans could not breath the atmosphere of such a Mars, plants could, and under such conditions increasingly complex types of pioneering vegetation could be disseminated to create soil, oxygen, and ultimately the foundation for a thriving ecosphere on Mars. The presence of substantial pressure, even of an unbreathable atmosphere, would greatly benefit human settlers as only simple breathing gear and warm clothes (i.e. no spacesuits) would be required to operate in the open, and city-sized inflatable structures could be erected (since there would be no pressure differential with the outside world) that could house very large settlements in an open-air shirt-sleeve environment.


Mars was once habitable, terraforming is possible

Mckay, 2004 Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center (Christopher The Physics, Biology, and Environmental Ethics of Making Mars Habitable http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12448997 July 20, 2011)


The considerable evidence that Mars once had a wetter, more clement, environment motivates the search for past or present life on that planet. This evidence also suggests the possibility of restoring habitable conditions on Mars. While the total amounts of the key molecules - carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen - needed for creating a biosphere on Mars are unknown, estimates suggest that there may be enough in the subsurface. Super greenhouse gases, in particular, perfluorocarbons, are currently the most effective and practical way to warm Mars and thicken its atmosphere so that liquid water is stable on the surface. This process could take ~100 years. If enough carbon dioxide is frozen in the South Polar Cap and absorbed in the regolith, the resulting thick and warm carbon dioxide atmosphere could support many types of microorganisms, plants, and invertebrates. If a planet-wide martian biosphere converted carbon dioxide into oxygen with an average efficiency equal to that for Earth's biosphere, it would take >100,000 years to create Earth-like oxygen levels. Ethical issues associated with bringing life to Mars center on the possibility of indigenous martian life and the relative value of a planet with or without a global biosphere


Terraforming IS possible

Popoviciu, 2010 "Ovidius" University of Constanţa, Natural Sciences and Agricultural Sciences Faculty, Constanţa, Romania (Dan, Terraforming Mars via the Bosch Reaction: Turning Gas Giants Into Stars, http://journalofcosmology.com/Mars102.html July 21, 2011)


Several methods for terraforming Mars, to make it habitable to humans, have been proposed by various authors (Graham, 2006, Moss, 2006; Zubrin & McKay, 1997). The proposals include giant orbital mirrors, controlled asteroid impacts, nuclear mining or the use of halocarbons to warm the planet and create an atmosphere (Birch, 1992; Zubrin & McKay, 1997; Fogg, 1998; Hiscox, 2000; Graham, 2004, 2006; International Space University, 2005; Marinova et al., 2005; Moss, 2006; Orme & Ness, 2007, McInnes, 2010). The general idea behind all these methods is that heating the Martian atmosphere should release carbon dioxide and other gaseous volatiles from the polar caps, permafrost and regolith reserves, triggering a runaway greenhouse effect thereby trapping heat and warming the planet. This would bring medium temperatures closer to those on Earth, and create a substantial atmosphere and planetary water cycle. It is unknown if microbes already populate the red planet. However, it is well established that archae, bacteria, and simple eukaryotes terraformed Earth, and created its oxygen atmosphere, and were also largely responsible for the temperature extremes, from global warming to global cooling, for the first 4 billion years (Joseph 2010). Therefore, a variety of microorganisms could be also be deployed to Mars.


Bosch Reaction terraforming: Mars will be habitable with enough hydrogen

Popoviciu, 2010 "Ovidius" University of Constanţa, Natural Sciences and Agricultural Sciences Faculty, Constanţa, Romania (Dan, Terraforming Mars via the Bosch Reaction: Turning Gas Giants Into Stars, http://journalofcosmology.com/Mars102.html July 21, 2011)


It took 4 billion years of terraforming before oxygen levels rose sufficiently and for temperature extremes to become less extreme, thereby making Earth habitable for complex oxygen-breating creatures (Joseph 2010). Increased oxygen levels also triggered the formation of a protective ozone, which allowed for innumerable species to emerge from the ocean and beneath the soil, and to walk, crawl, or slither across the earth (Joseph 2010). Although microbial and other means of terraforming should be considered, a more rapid method of making Mars habitable in just a few decades could be achieved through the Bosch reaction. Although the Bosch reaction has been suggested as a terraforming method for Venus and the Jovian moons, it has also been criticised for its greenhouse effect, which would be undesirable in the case of Venus (Birch, 1991, Cantrell, 2009). The Bosh reaction might be ideal for Mars. The Bosch reaction involves gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen and produces solid carbon (graphite) and water vapor as follows: CO2 + 2 H2 → C + 2 H2O The reaction requires high temperatures (530 – 730 °C), is accelerated by an iron, nickel or cobalt catalyst and is exothermal (Wilson, 1971). How could this be useful to the terraformation of Mars? First of all, it generates heat (10% of invested heat). The water vapor produced is a strong greenhouse gas. Furthermore, black graphite dust would lower the planet’s albedo, reducing its reflectivity and warm the surface. The problem is that a consistent source of hydrogen is needed.


Yes terraforming – solar reflection

Fogg, 1996 (Martyn J. Fogg, degree in physics and geology and a master's degree in astrophysics working on a Ph.D. in planetary science, TERRAFORMING MARS: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH, April 28, 2010, http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~mfogg/paper1.htm


Another way to warm Mars would be to increase its input of solar energy by reflecting light that passes the planet down to its surface. The use of orbiting mirrors to do this is a common suggestion in terraforming-related discussions (e.g. Oberg, 1981) and some outline designs have been published (Birch, 1992; Zubrin and McKay, 1993; Fogg 1995a). Whilst all are necessarily large in size, none are unfeasible in principle and their masses are surprisingly modest. A mirror system specifically designed as part of a runaway greenhouse scenario was presented by Zubrin and McKay (1993). By balancing gravitational and light pressure forces, they determined that a 125 km-diameter solar sail-mirror could be stationed 214,000 km behind Mars where it could illuminate the south pole with an additional ~ 27 TW. This should be sufficient to raise the polar temperature by ~ 5 K which, according to some models, should be sufficient for cap evaporation. At first glance, the size of such a mirror and its mass (200,000 tons of aluminium) may appear too grandiose a concept to take seriously.


It would only take 100 years

Fogg, 1996 ( Martyn J. Fogg, degree in physics and geology and a master's degree in astrophysics working on a Ph.D. in planetary science, TERRAFORMING MARS: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH, April 28, 2010, http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~mfogg/paper1.htm


Runaway greenhouse scenarios of terraforming promise much: that through comparatively modest engineering (at a level far less than the integrated activity of humanity on the Earth) Mars can be transformed into a planet habitable for anaerobic life in roughly a century. Conditions would still be hostile, akin to an arid and chilly Precambrian, but far less so than those on the present Mars. Further terraforming might follow ecopoiesis by, for example, arranging for photosynthesis to oxygenate the atmosphere. Long timescales of > 100,000 years have been cited for this step (Averner and MacElroy, 1976; McKay et al.,1991) although it appears reasonable that this might be reduced by at least a factor of ten if the biosphere is actively managed to optimise net oxygen production (Fogg, 1993a, 1995a).
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