Бреус Е. В. Основы теории и практики перевода с русского языка на английский: Учебное пособие. 2-е изд., испр и доп




НазваниеБреус Е. В. Основы теории и практики перевода с русского языка на английский: Учебное пособие. 2-е изд., испр и доп
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2. The voluntary public order squads known as the "druzhini" made their appearance in the 60s to assist the regular police in the work of crime prevention, as well as the more commonplace function of street patrolling.

3. It is sacrilege even to suppose that Slavophilism, a philosophy of love for Slavs and their culture, can be a political base for anti-Semitism.

4. Slavophiles idealized life in Russia before Tsar Peter the Great, but not the "oprichnina", special administrative elite under Tsar Ivan the Terrible.

5. "A poet in Russia is more than just a poet", Yevtushenko, a liberal Soviet poet, once remarked, hoping to extol the poet's role here.

6. In its essence this literature passionately strove towards goals that were outside of literature. Its most infamous task was the construction of a "New Man".

7. This is a sign of moral degradation reviving the spirit of "special conferences", sham trials during the Stalin years.

8. The elite echelon of Official Writers referred to as literary "nomenclature", often speculated on forbidden or semiforbidden themes.

Упражнение 55

1. He attends a technical secondary school specializing in electronic maintenance work.

2. Having shed all censorship restrictions under the aegis of Western publishers the significant majority of dissident writers suffocated from too much oxygen.

3. Part of our intellectuals realized back in the years of the Proletarian Culture Drive that by flocking together and using their private connections it was possible to manipulate the Party's position.

4. Ideological pressure continued at university and vocational school, in the army and at work.

5. Some try to drive a wedge between the authorities and the people.

6. Moreover, for the lazy and the weak-willed freedom is a way to social degradation and crime.

7. What is the cause of the present divisions among our intellectuals, especially writers?

181

8. True, not all artistic intellectuals or scientists participate in this fighting. Упражнение 56

1. At first the local government officials gave the green light to cooperatives that sought to make profit by dishonest means. Such co-operatives had more money and were more compliant.

2. As soon as things became a little more difficult for the black market dealers, corrupt officials and the shadow economics and politics, there appeared all sorts of social provocations.

3. The wave of reaction that is now trying to clear the way for a right-ward shift will ebb away in the end. It will end up in farce.

4. Official Literature maintained the Stalinist tradition and operated according to the principles of "Party Spirit" established in the 1930s and the 1940s.

5. Certain local leaders objected to the idea of having uncontrolled private cinema. They introduced compulsory permits and demanded that all tapes be vetted.

6. A normal democratic process means competitive spirit, including the intellectual sphere, but it does not need a vanity fair or a literary version of Vishinsky, the main public prosecutor during the Stalin purges of the 1930s.

7. The quasi-intellectual birds-of-a-feather spirit does exist.

Упражнение 57

1. Moreover, this new literature also draws strength from its ability to adapt to the conditions of free self-expression and rejects opportunistic political journalism.

2. It is only to be regretted that a very serious idea of Russian revival is sometimes used by the hysterical and reckless, who scare away those people who seek the flowering of Russia.

3. The kids of those days had their own "privilege" — they could hang on outside.

4. Any peasant knows that in a vast country like ours, with its bad roads, grain and potatoes should be stored by those who produce them.

5. Naturally, video cannot completely even out the differences between the centre and the periphery, but it can help.

6. Usually, if television is going to screen a theatre production, they don't do it until public interest has cooled off, on the principle that it would stop people going to see it live.

7. Socialist Realism taught the reader to view reality in the process of revolutionary transformation. It preferred the future to the present, oriented 182

itself towards overcoming the hardships of everyday life and was full of grand promises.

Упражнение 58

1. Nonetheless, Official Prose tried to draw Village Writers into its ideological ranks and coerce them into joining in the fight with the West.

2. I remember that dramatic moment when poet after poet stepped up to the "first" open microphone in a Moscow literary club to recite their beloved liberal poems -written in great secret during the Brezhnev era.

3. There are also great video opportunities for people living in far flung corners of the country who want to catch up with cultural events in town.

4. I would like to believe that video is the last socio-cultural innovation of our time to catch us unprepared.

5. My heart starts bleeding at the sight of petty intrigues in our literary corridors: writers trying to bite and outbark each other in order to get into the limelight.

6. Search for the "enemy" is all the more horrible when it is of ethnic origin, -when people are harassed because of their genealogical roots and those who do this find sadistic pleasure trying to establish the original names of the mothers and fathers of their victims.

7. Censorship was a formative influence for this Liberal school. It fed an addiction among Liberal Writers to an obtrusive reliance on allusions. Similarly, readers grew addicted to a "treasure-hunt" for hints, to seeking out places where the writer had his tongue in cheek. The result was that writers got carried away with all this tongue-in-the-cheek parody and forgot how to think.

Упражнение 59

1. Taboo subjects included: Stalin, the determinants of the Russian national character, the collectivization of agriculture and the dissident movement.

2. The grief brought by this torture could hardly serve to cement the Tower of Babel of Soviet belles lettres.

3. Some managed to adapt well, others sold out (neither the former, nor the latter were saved from the Russian roulette ofStalinist terror).

4. They must make sure that their employees have the incentive to do their job properly and to keep a finger on the pulse of future trends.

5. The Village Writers appear to reject "Soviet" values but their apocalyptic tone drowns out everything else, exhausting the reader with its total lack of taste.

183

6. As the director of Video Film, Oleg Uralov explains: "That is how it should be. Let's say when "Heart of a Dog" (by Bulgakov) was premiered in Moscow, with all the media attention it got, we managed to film the fifth or sixth performance".

7. A catalogue of new films could better indicate, the number of films to be issued, just like publishing houses do, with the difference that it will cost Video Film far more dearly to get it wrong than it will any publisher.

8. When the tram was crowded the conductor could flip up his seat to carry on with his work standing up to make more room.

Упражнение 60

1. The central figure of this literature is the Pious Woman who despite all the hardships of Soviet life remains true to her religious instincts. She is to be found, for example, in Solzhenitsyn's short story "Matryona's House", one of the earliest works of Village Prose.

2. Others prefer a faster version of self-justification. They argue that they took part in the persecution of dissident writers on "orders" from above.

3. Village Prose arose in the post-Stalinist years. It described the horrific conditions in the Russian countryside after it had been subjected to ruthless collectivization and the miseries of WWIIand the post-war period.

4. If you don't have cassettes with films that are difficult to understand or commentaries by qualified experts, you will not be able to help serious viewers.

5. Village Prose is not so much a thematic school, but a way of viewing the world.

6. It was Igor Skvortsov who five years ago brought the old Bresh tram out of its place of retirement in the tram park and all this time had been driving it along a tourist route.

7. In order to survive, the video libraries and videotheques must listen carefully to what the customers want.

8. It is easier to have ordinary films on video cassette rather than sending them round the country in the traditional heavy round metal containers.

Упражнение 61

1. For personal honours and benefits they readily harassed some of their own who dared to have different views.

2. Yet even to me, it is something alien: that is the demand that writers be socially committed grew so great that it all too often distracted Russian literature from aesthetic concerns and drew it into the realm of sermonizing.

184

3. At last remote places (and, as a popular song goes, this is a vast land) will not have to wait two years or more for new films to arrive on their screens.

4. This brand of Official Literature is referred to here as "secretarial". Only influential secretaries of the Writers' Union could produce it, since they occupied positions secure from both critics and censorship.

5. Many honest and upstanding people were harassed.

6. He would rent out a style for each particular job as one rents a car. it was nothing more than a vehicle to reach his social destination.

7. Official Literature could well take as its theme the Shakespearean tragedy occurring among the older generation. Some people in their 70s had suddenly grasped the futility of their earthly existence. Enlightenment had come too late. They had -wasted their lives in worshipping false ideals, while scoffing at any metaphysical values.

8. In the 70s, Village Prose flourished, as its leading writers Victor As-tafiev, Vasily Belov and Valentin Rasputin succeeded in establishing an independent school under the banner of "patriotism".

9. Village Writers were seriously alarmed by the Jewish influence on Russia's fate. Their unique brand of racism was shaped by a historical desire to shift the blame for all national misfortunes onto "them".

10. The real test for what we build will be when it comes face to face with foreign products and finds itself in competition with the unofficial hire network which passes the films on from hand to hand.

Упражнение 62

1. The worst floods to hit Mozambique in years have made the province of Gaza a disaster area. One of the first countries to respond to appeals for aid was Russia. Gifts of food, medicines and other essentials from the Russian Red Cross are now on their way to Africa aboard the motor vessel Sretensk.

2. The "burka", or shepherd's cape, that looks so exotic to the average Russian, but is still worn all over the Caucasus, now comes ready-made, produced in the city of Stavropol. This traditional garment, long, voluminous and warm, is pure wool felt, and has always served its wearers well, for besides looking romantic, it sheds rain and snow; also oddly enough, it is good protection against the hot sun in the summer time.

3. The Hilok Taiga, a vast area of coniferous forest in Eastern Siberia, has long been known for its cedar pine, that produces a delicious edible seed, the pine-nut. Special protective clothing, food supplies and log cabins have been provided for the teams that will come here to collect the pine-nut harvest this season. This season's target was a hundred tons, but local experts believe there will be considerably more.

185

RIDE IN A TIME MACHINE

The passengers got into the carriage, settled themselves in their seats and travelled to ... the past. From Petersburg to Strelna along the famous iron road of Oranela we rumbled on the first of the new excursions.

The old tram pulled away from the stop on Admiralty Avenue. This is the cradle of the Petersburg tramway. Our excursion along the Oranela, one of the first lines, has become the second tram route into the past. For five years now people can see this eajly 20th century tram running along the roads and avenues of Petersburg.

With its elegantly inscribed sides saying: "Passengers must not alight whilst the carriage is in motion", it runs regularly through the city's streets. Only the experts could tell the difference between it and the real Bresh trams brought from England in 1907.

The first line to be opened was not very long, just a little over a mile and a half. When the inaugural banquet heard the toast "To the Petersburg workers, the builders of the Petersburg tramway!", control of the driver's handle was taken by engineer Heinrich Osipovich Graftio (the builder of the Volkhovsk electrical station and the Oranela) who took the tram for a trip of about two miles.

Five years ago the old tram was brought out of retirement by the workers of the Leonov Tram Park and the City Excursion Bureau. They were aided in their project by the Volodarsky Tram Park.

"In 1912 they started laying the rails from the Narvsky Gates to the Ora-nienbaum (now Lomonosov)", explained our tour leader "Mr. Lazarev whose idea it had been to open up these routes for tourist excursions. "Unfortunately the First World War meant that the Oranela, which is short for Oranienbaum Electric Line, was not finished. The tram started running as far as Strelna and that is the route of our new excursion. We are planning a third route, past the Nevsky Gates".

The driver for the first trip along the Oranela was Igor Timofeevich Skvortsov. It was he who five years ago brought the old Bresh tram out of its place of retirement in the tram park and all this time had been driving it along a tourist route. On the eve of the anniversary of the Petersburg Tramway I went to see the man responsible for this "time machine".

I opened a metal "gate" and mounted the platform from where I could glance into the driver's cabin, just as it had been years ago. Compared with today's cabins, it is rather Spartan. The usual control handle for the left hand is there, but here all similarity ends. There isn't even any seat, which was to appear much later. The cold and dust, rain and snow were for a long time the enemies of the driver, until the advent of the electric heater in the cabin.

186

In the carriage running the length of the ceiling above the long wooden benches there are metal bars with leather straps hanging from them. The straps were for the passengers who used to hang off them in clusters right up until the 1960s, when the last trams of this design finally disappeared from the streets of Petersburg.

The very first carriages were divided by a barrier into two compartments, first and second class. Tickets cost six and four kopecks, respectively. The door to the first class compartment was operated by the conductor who sat in one comer. When the tram was crowded he could flip up his seat and carry on with his work standing up to make more room.

The regulations on the old tramway were stricter than they are today. It was strictly prohibited to "Smoke and Dirty" the carriages. Trams were off limits to "chimney sweeps, herring salters, millers, painters and persons in a state of inebriation". People entered by the rear doors and left through the front. Some passengers were permitted to enter through the front doors. For a long time it was a special privilege. There were even reduced price tickets, which, said our guide, were given to people like the ballerina Galina Ulanova.
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