Бреус Е. В. Основы теории и практики перевода с русского языка на английский: Учебное пособие. 2-е изд., испр и доп




НазваниеБреус Е. В. Основы теории и практики перевода с русского языка на английский: Учебное пособие. 2-е изд., испр и доп
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The peasants watched him go in bewilderment.

"Does he think he'll give them the slip, or what?"

"He may do, but his missus will still be here," said people in the crowd.

The visitors, two clean-shaven men in cloth caps, whoaed their horse by Puzyrev's hut.

Suddenly, from the far end of the village, came the sound of piercing pig squeals.

The visitors exchanged looks, their faces, livid with cold, splitting with smug grins.

"We've got something there, Comrade Kholodkov," said one.

"Stow it," said the other and wagged his finger at his mate, the way an experienced hunter would caution an over-enthusiastic assistant all agog at the first signs that the quarry was near.

Puzyrev's missus emerged from the hut and invited the guests to come in for a little warmth and refreshments.

"Is your man at home, then?" asked the visitors, pouring themselves a glass of vodka with numb hands.

"Aye, he is," said the hostess," just gone out to feed the beasts."

At long last there appeared the master of the house, slightly out of breath, and having greeted the guests, hung his hat on a nail by the door.

"Well, how's things on the pig front here? Got any yourself?"

The peasants who had packed into the hut held their breath.

"Depends..." drawled the host. "Can't say I've all that many, but one is what we can produce all right."

The peasants looked at one another, unsure what to make of it.

"That's fine, then, we'll just finish our drinks, take a look at it and get the contract ready."

The visitors downed one more glass apiece, put on their caps and made for the stockyard, munching a radish. The Russian ritual of vodka drinking requires food to be taken with alcohol.

204

The villagers could not believe their eyes: there in the sty, on a bed of clean fresh straw lay a big white sow with a black mark on her forehead.

"Ain't she gorgeous! How much shall we say, Comrade Kholodkov?"

Two hundred would be a fair price, and an advance of fifty."

"Right. Put it down, then. And make an entry about her looks: a white sow with a little black mark on the forehead. Lucky, that special mark on her. Now we won't get this one mixed up with the others."

The peasant from the neighboring village who had been awaiting developments with the crowd of locals in the yard suddenly bolted out, climbed onto his horse and galloped homeward at top speed.

"Now let's try next door."

In the next hut they were offered a glass of milk, good wholesome stuff. As they were finishing the milk, in straggled the master of the house, saying:

"Not a good idea, this, to cool your innards with milk; only just come in from the cold, and there you are, letting in more cold. Much better to crack a bottle."

"Aye, he's right there... I'm getting shivery."

The host handed a glass of vodka to each contractor, and when they had gulped in down, he said:

"The sow is waiting. Ready for reception."

"Well, if she's waiting, out we go." '

The visitors went out into the yard and saw in one corner, reclining on clean new straw, a big white sow with a black mark on her forehead.

"Oh, look, another one to match," cried Comrade Belov.

"Them's all relatives here."

"Only this one's bigger, ain't she," said Comrade Kholodkov, adding: "Holy Mother, it's all that drinking on an empty stomach. I'm fuddled."

"This one'll be a couple of weeks older than the first," said Kulazhnikov.

"So how much shall we give for this one?" asked Belov.

"Make it two hundred, and seventy in advance. Write what she looks like, so we don't confuse her with the others, and so they don't cheat. Is it your vodka that's so strong, or is it because we ain't eaten?"

"Because you ain't eaten, sure thing. Nothing like a plateful of fresh meat, now," said Kochergin, whose turn came next. And when the contractors went towards his house, he winked at his wife coming out to meet them, and raced back to the sty. A minute later a pig could be heard squealing desperately, the way pigs do when hauled along by the forelegs.

Comrade Belov looked at Kholodkov with a drowsy smile and said:

"Struck gold here, we have. Our Moscow shops will be crammed with bacon."

He wanted to clink glasses with his companion, but missed and, with a resigned wave of the hand, drank without further ceremony.

205

Some ten minutes later, in came the host and announced that the sow was waiting.

The contractors found their caps, which had taken some time, and followed him out.

And Comrade Belov, barely inside the sty, halted in amazement:

"Why, there's two in here."

"No, there's only one, it just seems so on an empty stomach," said one of the villagers, and the hut owner gave him a black look and showed him a closed fist from under his coat flap.

"But this one's as good as two. Huge, she is. Worth three hundred ruble, Comrade Kholodkov, if she's worth a kopeck. And write down that she's got this special mark, not to mix her up with the others: white with a black mark in her forehead."

In the next household they registered two white sows with black marks. Actually, Comrade Belov fancied there were four at first, but Kholodkov set him right, and even felt the pigs with his hands, to make sure, and was somewhat surprised that while he was feeling for different pigs, his hands kept knocking against each other.

"We're getting on nicely!" Comrade Belov exclaimed in delight.

Suddenly there appeared a cart on the road hurtling along from the neighboring village. The man driving the horse was instantly identified as the peasant who had been here to witness the contractors' arrival. Pulling up by the blacksmith's hut, the last in the row, the new-comer ran inside and shouted before he could get his breath back:

"For mercy's sake, let me have the sow, quick!"

"Isn't through yet. She's receiving next door."

Having done fifty homesteads, the contractors sat down at the blacksmith's table, spread the pay sheet and ran their fingers over it clumsily, saying:

"The mind boggles. After a job like that one could celebrate for two days solid. If all these pigs were to be slaughtered at once, there'd be a mountain of meat. Comrade Kholodkov, you write a report now."

Kholodkov picked up a pencil that kept skipping from his grasp and wrote:

"Comrade Nikishin, we are choking with pigs. Paid out three and a half thousand in advance payments alone. A choice selection, export material every one, black all over, white marks on foreheads. We are moving on precipitately, expecting like success."

Литература

Бархударов Л С Язык и перевод. М., 1975,

Бреус Е.В. Теория и практика перевода (английский язык): Программа курса. М., 1996.

Гак В.Г. Сопоставительная лексикология. М., 1977.

Комиссаров В.Н Лингвистика перевода. М., 1980.

Лещенко М.И. Виртуальный и актуальный аспекты предложения. Минск, 1988.

Львовская З.Д. Теоретические проблемы перевода. М., 1985.

Михеев А. В. Современная английская риторика и перевод: Учебное пособие к спецкурсу "Основы публичной речи". М., 1988.

Морозов М.М Пособие по переводу. М., 1956.

Рецкер Я. И. Теория перевода и переводческая практика. М., 1974.

Рецкер Я. И. Следует ли передавать аллитерацию в публицистическом переводе? / Тетради переводчика. М,, 1966, №3.

Стрелкова НС Практическая стилистика английского языка и стилистическое редактирование переводов: Учебное пособие. М., 1984.

Федоров А В Основы общей теории перевода. М., 1983.

Черняховская Л. А. Перевод и смысловая структура. М., 1976.

Швейцер А.Д. Перевод и лингвистика. М., 1973.

Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода: статус, проблемы, аспекты. М., 1988.

Carrel ЯМ.. Laird Ch. Modem English Handbook. N.Y., 1954.

William Sirunk. Jr The elements of style. The MacmillamCompany, N.Y.. 1960.

Содержание

Предисловие ..................................................................................................... 3

Введение. Перевод как акт межъязыковой коммуникации........................... 5

1. Денотативная функция............................................................................. 14

1.1. Общие сведения................................................................................... 14

1.2. Смена предикатов при переводе......................................................... 15

1.3. Перевод высказываний с обратным порядком слов.......................... 21

1.4. Передача конструкций с отглагольными существительными......... 34

1.5. Членение и объединение высказываний при переводе..................... 43

1.6. Перевод свободных словосочетаний.................................................. 61

2. Экспрессивная функция........................................................................... 79

2.1. Общие сведения ................................................................................... 79

2.2. Сохранение экспрессивного эффекта................................................. 80

2.3. Снижение экспрессивности................................................................. 90

2.4. Идиоматичность экспрессивно-стилистических средств ................. 95

3. Прагматическая адаптация исходного текста...................................... 106

Приложения

1. Тексты с переводческим комментарием ............................................... 119

2. Ключи к упражнениям и текстам........................................................... 153

Литература ...................................................................................... 207




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