Артикль




НазваниеАртикль
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АРТИКЛЬ


Запомните следующие правила.

Перед каждым нарицательным существитель­ным должен стоять артикль.

Если вы не употребляете перед существитель­ным артикль, вы должны уметь объяснить, по­чему.

Артикль не употребляется, если перед существи­тельным стоит притяжательное или указатель­ное местоимение, другое существительное в притяжательном падеже, количественное числи­тельное или отрицание "по" (не "not").

Упр. 1. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

  1. This is ... book. It is my ... book. 2. Is this your ... pencil? — No, it isn't my ... pencil, it is ray sister's ... pencil. 3. I have ... sister. My ... sister is ... engineer. My sister's ... husband is ... doctor. 4. I have no ... handbag. 5. Is this ... watch? — No, it isn't ... watch, it's ... pen. 6. This ... pen is good, and that ... pen is bad. 7. I can see ... pencil on your ... table, but I can see no ... paper. 8. Give me ... chair, please. 9. They have ... dog and two ... cats. 10. I have ... spoon in my ... plate, but I have no ... soup in it.

Упоминая предмет впервые, мы употребляем пе­ред ним неопределенный артикль а(аn

). Упоми­ная этот же предмет вторично, мы ставим пе­ред ним определенный артикль the.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting.

Упр. 2. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... tree. ... tree is green. 2. I can see three ... boys. ... boys are playing. 3. I have ... bicycle. ... bicycle is black. My ... friend has no ... bicycle. 4. Our ... room is large. 5. We wrote ... dictation yesterday. ... dictation was long. 6. She has two ... daughters and one ... son. Her ... son is ... pupil. 7. My ... brother's ... friend has no ... dog. 8. This ... pencil is broken. Give me that ... pencil, please. 9. She has ... ball. ... ball is ... big. 10. I got ... letter from my ... friend yesterday. ... letter was interesting.

Неопределенный артикль a (an) может употреб­ляться только с исчисляемыми существитель­ными, стоящими в единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными или суще­ствительными во множественном числе неопре­деленный артикль опускается. Определенный артикль the употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting.

исчисляемое в единственном числе

This is S meat. The meat is fresh.

неисчисляемое

These are S books. The books are good.

множественное число

Упр. 3. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... pen. ... pen is red. 2. These are pencils. ... pencils are black. 3. This is ... soup. ... soup is tasty. 4. In the morning I eat ... sandwich and drink ... tea. 5. She gave me ... coffee and ... cake. ... coffee was hot. ... cake was tasty. 6. Do you like ... ice-cream? 7. I see ... book in your ... hand. Is ... book interesting? 8. She bought... meat, ... butter and ... potatoes yesterday. She also bought ... cake. ... cake was very ... tasty. We ate ... cake with ... tea. 9. This is my ... table. On ... table I have ... book, two ... pencils, ... pen and ... paper. 10. This is ... bag. ... bag is brown. It is my sis­ter's ... bag. And this is my ... bag. It is ... yellow.

Запомните следующие словосочетания, в кото­рых артикль не употребляется:

at S school at S home at S work

Упр. 4. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. I have two ... sisters. My ... sisters are ... students. 2. We are at ... home. 3. My ... brother is not at ... home, he is at ... school. 4. My ... mother is at ... work. She is ... doctor. 5. I am not ... doctor. 6. I have no'... sister. 7. He is not ... pilot. 8. I have thirty-two ... teeth. 9. He has ... child. 10. She has two ... children. Her children are at ... school. 11. Is your father at ... home? — No, he is at ... work. 12. Where is your ... broth­er? — He is at ... home.

Если перед существительным употребляется прилагательное, оно стоит между артиклем и су­ществительным.

E.g. This is a book. This is a good book.

Упр 5. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. We have ... large ... family. 2. My granny often tells us ... long ... interesting .. stories. 3. My ... father is ... engineer. He works at ... factory. ... factory is large. 4. My ... mother is ... doctor. She works at ... large ... hospital. She is at ... work now. 5. My ... aunt is ... teacher. She works at ... school. ... school is good. My ... aunt is not at ... school now. She is at ... home. She is drinking ... tea and eating ... jam. ... jam is sweet. I am at ... home, too. I am drinking ... tea and eating ... sandwich. ... sandwich is tasty. 6. My sister is at ... school. She is ... pupil. 7. My cousin has ... big ... black ... cat. My cousin's ... cat has two ... kittens. ... milk, too. cat likes ... milk. ... kittens like

Упр. 6. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. I am ... engineer. 2. My ... son is ... pupil. 3. He is ... good ... pupil. 4. This is ... house. 5. This is my ... pencil. 6. You have some ... pen­cils, but I have no ... pencil. Give me ... pencil, please. 7. I like your ... beautiful ... flower. Give me ... flower, please. 8. My ... mother is at ... home. She is reading ... interesting ... book. 9. My ... father is not at ... home. He is at ... work. He is ... doctor. He is ... good ... doctor. He works at ... hospital. ... hospital is large.

Часто, даже упоминая предмет впервые, мы тем j не менее употребляем перед ним определенный артикль:

а) если упоминаемый предмет является един­ственным в мире

E.g. The sun is shining brightly.

в) если этот предмет является определенным по ситуации

E.g. Put the book on the table.

Упр. 7. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. What's ... weather like today? — ... weather is fine. 2. ... sun is yellow. 3. ... sky is grey today. 4. ... earth is ... planet. 5. We had ... English lesson yesterday. ... teacher asked me many ... questions. ... questions were difficult.

4. Where is your ... brother? — He is at ... home. He is in his ... room. He is sitting at ... table. He is doing his ... homework. ... homework is difficult. 5. Our ... cat is sitting on ... sofa. 6. It is very dark in ... room. Turn on ... light, please. 7. Nick went into ... bathroom, turned on ... water and washed his ... hands.

Упр. 8. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. This is ... good ... book. Take ... book from ... table. Put this ... book into ... bookcase. 2. ... weath­er is fine today. ... sky is blue. ... sun is shining brightly in ... blue ... sky. 3. This is ... boy. ... boy is at... school. He is ... pupil. This ... boy is my ... brother's ... friend. He has ... cat, but he has no ... dog. He likes his ... cat. He gives ... cat ... milk every day. 4. Yesterday I received ... letter from my ... friend. ... letter was interesting. 5. We live in... big house. I like ... house very much. 6. Are you ... worker? — No, I am ... student.

Кроме того существует огромное количество так называемых "застывших словосочетаний," в ко­торых артикль употребляется или отсутствует традиционно. Эти словосочетания приходится заучивать наизусть.

Запомните следующие конструкции.

There is a ... Where is the ... ?

Запомните также следующие предложения:

The (book) is on the (table). Ho: The (book) is on a little (table)1

Упр. 9. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. Where is ... cat? —.. cat is on ... sofa. 2. Where is ... book? — .. book is on ... shelf. 3. Where are ... flowers? — ... flowers are in ...beautiful vase. 4. Where is.. vase? — ... vase is on ... little table near ... window. 5. Open ... win­dow, please. ... weather is fine today. I can see ... sun in ... sky. I can see ... nice little bird. ... bird is sitting in ... big tree. ... tree is green. 6. There is ... little white cloud in ... sky. 7. We have ... large room. There is ... big sofa in ... room and ... little lamp on ... wall over ... sofa. I like to sit on ... sofa and read ... good book.

1 Существительное, стоящее в скобках, может быть любым. Прилагательное также может быть любым. Вместо предлога "on" может быть любой другой предлог иди заменяющее его слово­сочетание, напр, "in front of".

Запомните следующее застывшее словосочета­ние:

in S front

Упр. 10. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. Where is ... soup? — ... soup is in ... big saucepan on ... gas-cooker. 2. Where are ... cut­lets? — ... cutlets are in ... refrigerator on ... lit­tle plate. 3. There is no ... bread on ... table. Where is ... bread? 4. There is ... little brown coffee-table in our ... room in ... front of ... sofa. 5. Where is ... table in your ... room? 6. There is ... thick carpet on ... floor in my mother's ... room. 7. Is your brother at ... home? — No, he is at ... work. He works at ... big factory. He is ... engineer. 8. My sister has many ... books. ... books are in ... big bookcase. 9. ... weather is fine today. Let's go and play in ... yard. There are many ... children in ... yard. They are playing with ... ball.

Запомните следующие конструкции, требующие неопределенного артикля:

I have a ... This is a ... I am а... Не has а ... That is а ... Не is а ... I see а ... It is а ... She is а ...

There is а ...

Упр. 11. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1, We have ... big dog. ... dog is very clever. 2. My friend has ... very good computer. 3. This ... boy is big. He is ... student. 4. There is ... very big piano in ... hall. 5. This is ... tree and that is not ... tree. It's ... bush. 6. I am ... boy. I am ... pupil. I learn at ... school. 7. My sister is at ... work. She is ... secretary. She works at ... large office. 8. This is ... very difficult question. I don't know ... answer to it. 9. Do you see ... little girl with ... big ball in her ... hands? She is ... pupil of our ... school. 10. There was ... beautiful flower in this ... vase yesterday. Where is ... flower now?

Запомните следующие застывшие словосочета­ния:

in the middle in the corner to the right to the left

Упр. 12. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

  1. There is ... thick red ... carpet in my ... room. ... carpet is on ... floor in ... front of ... sofa. 2. Where is ... table in your brother's ... room? — His ... table is near ... window. 3. I can see ... fine ... vase on ... shelf. Is it your ... vase? 4. We have no ... piano in our ... living-room. 5. My ... uncle is ... married. He has ... beautiful wife. They have ... son, but they have no ... daughter. 6. I can see ... nice ... coffee-table in ... middle of ... room to ... right of ... door. It is ... black and ... red. I like ... coffee-table. 7. Our ... TV-set is on ... little ... table in ... corner of ... room. 8. There is... beauti­ful picture in my father's ... study, ... picture is on ... wall to ... left of ... window.

Упр. 13. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

My aunt's flat is in ... new house. There is ... living-room, ... bedroom, ... study, ... bathroom and ... kitchen in ... flat. ... bedroom is ... large room with ... two windows. ... room is light as ... windows are large. There are ... white curtains on ... windows. There are ... two beds with ... large pillows on them. There are ... small tables near ... beds. There are ... lamps on them. To ... left of ... door there is ... dressing-table with ... looking-glass on it. There is ... low chair at ... dressing-table. There are ... several pictures on ... pale green walls. There is ... thick carpet on ... floor. ... car­pet is dark green. ... room is very cosy.

Если после конструкции there is (there are) сто­ит неисчисляемое существительное или суще­ствительное во множественном числе, вместо опущенного неопределенного артикля часто (не обязательно) употребляется слово "some."

Упр. 14, Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

  1. There is ... sofa in ... corner of ... room. 2. There are ... cushions on ... sofa, 3. There are ... books on ... shelf. Give me ... book, please. 4. Look into ... refrigerator. What can you see on ... shelves? — There is ... butter in ... butter-dish. There is ... sausage, but there is no ... cheese. There are ... eggs and ... apples. There is ... orange, ... lemon, and ... jam in ... little vase. 5. There is ... juice in this ... cup. May I drink ... juice? 6. There are ... girls in ... yard, but I can see no ... boys. Where are ... boys? — Oh, all ... boys are playing football at ... stadium.

Упр. 15. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

I have ... colour TV-set. ... TV-set is on ... little table in ... corner of ... room. 2. There is ... book, ... pen, and ... paper on my ... writing-desk. 3. My ... brother is ... teacher. He works at ... school. He has ... very good books. His ... books are in ... big bookcase. 4. There is ... tea in my ... glass. There is no ... tea in my ... friend's ... glass. His ... glass is empty. 5. Where is ... coffee-table in your ... room? — ... coffee-table is in ... front of ... sofa. There is ... cup on ... coffee-table and ... newspa­pers. There is ... coffee in ... cup.

Запомните следующие застывшие словосочета­ния:

in the morning in the afternoon

in the evening at s_ night

А также:

to go to S bed to go to S_ work

to go to S_ school

Упр. 16. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. My ... friend has to get up early in ... morn­ing because he goes to ... school. That's why he usually goes to ... bed early in ... evening. 2% ... weather was very bad in ... morning yesterday. ... sky was grey and it was raining. But in ... middle of ... day ... weather began to change. ... rain stopped and ... sun appeared from behind ... clouds. In ... afternoon it was very warm. I did not want to stay at ... home and went into ... yard. There were ... boys and ... girls in ... yard. We played in ... yard till late in ... evening. When I came ... home, I drank ... tea, ate ... sandwich and went to ... bed at once. I slept very well at ... night.

Запомните следующие застывшие словосочета­ния:

to go S_ home to come S_ home

to leave S home for S_ work (for S_ school) at S_ half past five at a quarter past five

Упр. 17. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. My brother is ... pupil. He goes to ... school.He goes to ... school in ... morning. He has five or six ... lessons every day. In ... afternoon he goes ... home. At ... home he does his ... homework. In ... evening he reads ... books. He usually goes to ... bed at ... half past ten. At ... night he sleeps. 2. My father goes to ... work in ... morning and

comes ... home in ... evening. 3. I get up at ... half past seven in ... morning and go to ... bed at ... quarter to eleven in ... evening. 4. When does your mother leave ... home for ... work? — She leaves ... home for ... work at ... quarter past eight. 5. When do you leave ... home for ... school? — I leave ... home for ... school at... half past... eight.

Перед названиями месяцев и дней недели ар­тикль не употребляется.

School begins in S_ September. We rest on S_ Sunday.

Перед порядковыми числительными обычно употребляется определенный артикль.

Our classroom is on the second floor. Today is the tenth of May.
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