Методические рекомендации для студентов по дисциплине дпп. 06. «Теория и методика обучения иностранному языку»




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Агентство образования администрации Красноярского края

КГОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж»


Методические рекомендации для студентов

по дисциплине ДПП.06.



«Теория и методика обучения иностранному языку»


Канск

2007

Печатается по решению научно-методического совета Канского педагогического колледжа


Автор-составитель: Т.Э. Петкова


Методические рекомендации для студентов по дисциплине ДПП.06, «Теория и методика обучения иностранному языку»: Методическое пособие для студентов, Канск: Канский педагогический колледж, 2005. – 174 стр.


Данные методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов, обучающихся по специальности 050303 Иностранный язык. Пособие содержит материалы для информационной поддержки как теоретического, так и практического курса дисциплины предметной подготовки «Теория и методика обучения иностранному языку». Так как преподавание этой дисциплины основано на билингвальном принципе, в рекомендациях представлены разделы, как на русском, так и на английском языке. Пособие охватывает 6 основных разделов дисциплины, соответствующих дидактическим единицам Государственного образовательного стандарта СПО, а именно:

-цели обучения иностранному языку;

-современные тенденции в развитии языкового образования;

-методы и подходы в обучении иностранному языку;

-иноязычная коммуникативная компетенция;

-особенности формирования иноязычных навыков и коммуникативных умений;

-современные технологии обучения иностранному языку;

-типология учебных материалов и критерии их отбора;

-контроль и оценка уровня владения иностранным языком;

-планирование и проведение урока.

Рекомендации содержат практические задания, вопросы для самоконтроля и тесты и может быть использованы как для проведения практических занятий, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.


© Автор – составитель:

Т.Э. Петкова

И.Л. Кирт


© КГОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж»

CONTENT


Module 1.Foreign language teaching approaches. Introduction into ELT. Planning. Classroom management. 4

Module 2.Teaching language aspects 45

2.1 Teaching grammar 45

2.2 Teaching vocabulary 63

2.3 Teaching pronunciation 72

Module 3.Teaching skills 82

3.1 Teaching listening 82

3.2 Teaching reading 100

3.3 Teaching speaking 116

3.4 Teaching writing 136

Module 4. Assessment 156

Module 5. Materials evaluation 159

Module 6. Syllabus design. Syllabus analysis. 163

Module 1. Foreign language teaching approaches.

Introduction into ELT. Planning. Classroom management


1 Модуль: Introduction into ELT and classroom management.

LECTURE Session 1

Introduction to ELT Methodology.

Aim: by the end of the session the students will have an idea of the following points.

  1. What makes a good teacher?

  2. Foreign language teaching approaches in the 20th century.

  3. Post-communicative approach to ELT in the 21st century. Its basic principles.

  4. Communicative competence.

  5. Role of the teacher.

Bibliography: 1. Frederick Klippel. Keep talking CUP. (Act.№ 56 p.70)

2. Jeremy Harmer “How to teach English”.

In an attempt to find out what we all think about teaching and teachers I’d like to ask you this question: “What makes a good teacher?” and to offer you a sort of an activity to do. Of course, it’s a question of a very personal concern, but as it is rather inconvenient to listen to everybody’s opinion on the subject, let’s do it in pairs. Read the statements describing qualities of a good teacher and try to agree in what order you would put them beginning with the most important one.

“Keep talking” p.70

A good teacher

  • Keeps in contact with the parents of his/her pupils and lets them participate in the life of the school.

  • Is able to maintain discipline and order.

  • Lets the students share his/her own life with all its ups and downs.

  • Works hard to remain up-to-date in his/her subject.

  • Openly admits when he or she made mistake or does not know something.

  • Is interested in his or her students, asks them about their homes and tries to help where possible.

  • Makes the students work hard and sets high standards.

  • Is friendly and helpful to his or her colleagues.

  • Uses a lot of different materials, equipment and teaching methods and attempts to make his or her lessons interesting.

  • Helps the students become independent and organize their own learning.

A good teacher


Quality

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1.Contact with parents
































2. Discipline
































3. Shares his/her life with ss































4. Up-to-date in the subject































5. Admits mistakes































6. Is interested in the ss































7. Makes ss work hard































8. Is friendly to colleagues































9. Uses dif-t materials and techniques































10. Helps ss become independent


































































In a book of research called “Making sense of teaching” the authors Sally Brown and Donald McIntyre wanted to find out how “good teachers” did their job. They selected a group of good teachers and asked them about their teaching. This is what they found out:

  • The most obvious common feature of the different teacher’s accounts was that in response to our question about their teaching they almost always talked about what their pupils were doing.

A simple answer to the question “What makes a good teacher?” is that good teachers care more about their students’ learning than they do about their own teaching.

1) The way that teachers talk to students - the manner in which they interact with them is one of the crucial teacher skills. It requires teachers to empathize with the students they are talking to. This empathy allows good teachers to feel whether the level of language they are using is appropriate to the audience they are addressing. Good teachers don’t forget to keep the so called eye contact and they do it unconsciously. Apart from adapting their language, good teachers use physical moment: gestures, expressions, mime.

2) The q-n of how to talk to students becomes even more important when teachers are giving instructions. The best activity in the world is the waste of time if the students don’t understand what it is they are supposed to do. There are 2 general rules for giving instructions:

1) they must be kept as simple as possible;

2) they must be logical.

Before giving instructions teachers must ask themselves the following questions: What is the most important info I’m trying to convey? What must the students know if they are to complete the activity successfully? Which info do they need first? Which should come next? When teachers give instructions, it is important for them to check that the students have understood what they are being asked to do. This can be achieved either by asking the student to explain the activity after the teacher or by getting someone to show the other students in the class how the exercise works, sometimes asked to translate the instructions.

3) There is a constant debate about the amount of time teachers should spend talking in class. Trainees’ classes are often criticized because there is too much TTT (Teachers Talking Time) and not enough STT (Student Talking Time). A good teacher maximizes STT and minimizes TTT. The best lessons are ones where STT is maximized, but where at appropriate moments the teacher is not afraid to summarize what is happening, tell a story, enter into discussion. Good teachers use their common sense and experience to get their balance right.

4) One of the greatest enemies of successful teaching is student boredom. This is often caused by the predictability of classroom time. Students frequently know what is going to happen in class and they know this because it will be the same what happened in the last class. Students need surprise and variety. But variety is the same as anarchy. Students generally appreciate a safe structure which they can rely on. Good teachers find a balance between predictable safety and unexpected variety.

5) One more q-n crucial for a good teacher is how important it is to follow a prearranged plan. This q-n is of no concern for students having their school practice, of course. Suppose that the teacher has planned to allow 20 minutes for dialogue preparation and acting out. But then it becomes obvious they need more time. What should a teacher do? Abandon the original plan or is it better to press ahead?

What is your opinion? What should a good teacher do?

Good teachers are flexible enough to cope with such situations. Because they are focusing on the students and what they need, they are able to react quickly to the unplanned event. Good teachers recognize that their plans are only prototypes and they may have to abandon some or all of them if things are going too fast or too slow. Though, such situations rarely happen to good teachers because they are able to distribute the timing correctly.

2. The second question we are going to touch upon deals with foreign language teaching approaches which were widely spread in the 20th century. Much current teaching practice is the direct results of these methods/ you can see a certain number of them in the chart in our handouts. Only the last line has got 3 gaps for you to fill them in.


Approaches to ELT


Foreign Language Teaching approaches in the 20th century

Date

Title

Country of origin

Major source of influence

1900

Grammar - translation

Germany

Teaching of classics

1903

Direct

Germany

Learning theory

1950s

Situational

UK

Linguistic

1950s

Structural

USA

Linguistic

1950s

Audio - lingual

USA

Learning theory

1960s

Audio - visual

France

Technology

1970s

Notional / functional

UK

Linguistic

1970s

Humanistic :

  • Silent way

  • Total physical response

  • Community language

USA

Linguistic

1980s

Communicative

UK

Learning

1980s

Natural

USA

Learning theory

1990s

Lexical

UK

Birmingham

Linguistics

2000

Post - communicative







(J. Mc Govern, Lancaster University, UK)

To understand this chart better you should bear in mind the difference between the terms “approach”, “method” and “methodology”.

  • Approach- a theory of teaching (how to teach)

  • Method – procedures and techniques characteristics of teaching(a way of teaching)

  • Methodology – a system of methods

Analyzing the chart we can come to a conclusion that there have been a lot of approaches within the recent years. The most popular among them, nevertheless, were grammar-translation, audio-lingual, Communicative Language Teaching. And I’d like to draw your attention to the description of these 3 approaches.

1) Grammar-translation as the most commonly used way of learning languages for hundreds of years. Analyzing the grammar and finding equivalents between the students’ language and the language to be studied, the students studied how the foreign language is constructed. A concentration on grammar-translation stopped the students from getting the kind of natural language input and it often fails to give them opportunities to activate their language knowledge. The problem with grammar-translation is that it teaches people about the language and doesn’t really help them learn the language itself.

2) Audio-lingual. This is a language teaching methodology based on behaviourist theories of learning. These theories suggested that much learning is the result of habit formation (Pavlov’s method). As a result, audio-lingual classes concentrated on long repetition – drill stages, in which the teacher hoped that the students would acquire good language habits. Methodologists later on understood that in this approach students were not exposed to real or realistic language. However, drilling is still popular, especially for low – level students.
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