Аналитическое чтение учебно-методическое пособие для студентов отделения заочного обучения




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Aspect



Readings in the Theory of English Grammar” by L.L. Iofik, L.P. Chakhoyan, A.G. Pospelova, pp. 74-76

Aspect indicates the aspect, the type, the character of the action. The following classes occur:

1. Durative Aspect. This type represents the action as continuing. We usually employ here the progressive form: “He is eating.” To express different shades of the idea of continuance also other forms are often used, especially remain, keep, keep on, go on, continue with a present participle as predicate after an intransitive, and an infinitive or gerund as object after a transitive. […]

2. Point-action Aspects. The point-action aspects call attention, not to an act as a whole, but to only one point, either the beginning or the final point. There are thus two classes:

a. INGRESSIVE ASPECT. This point-action type directs the attention especially to the initial stage of the action or state: “He awoke early”, i.e., came into a waking state early. “The boat slowed up as it came in.” “They went the moment it cleared.” This idea is expressed in various ways:

aa. The ingressive aspect is often expressed by begin, commence, or start in connection with an infinitive or gerund as object. […]

ab. The ingressive idea is often expressed by the ingressives get, grow, fall, turn, wax, become, run, go, come, set, stare, take (take up as a habit) in connection with a predicate adjective, participle, noun, or a prepositional phrase: “He often gets sick.” […]

b. EFFECTIVE ASPECT. This point-action aspect directs the attention to the final point of the activity or state, to a result that has been reached, hence it often indicates attainment or failure: “The two friends fell out.” “He knocked him out in the fourth round.” […]

3. Terminate Aspect. A large number of simple and compound verbs indicate an action as a whole. Such verbs are called terminates. This aspect is especially associated with the simple form of the verb just as the durative aspect is associated with the progressive form. […] In terminates the action often begins and terminates within a limited period: “He motioned to me.” “He didn’t even wince.” “He hit the mark.” “He handed me a book.” “He shot a duck.” “The bullet pierced his heart.” “She sighed.” “A snowflake lit upon his nose.” “He stumbled and fell.” “The thugs killed him, took his money, and threw him into the river.” “An idea flashed on me.” “This news dashed, shattered, our hopes.” “She misunderstood me.” “I overlooked this item in my calculation.” The terminate aspect is the largest category, and hence is associated with many verbs of quite a different meaning from those just mentioned. Any verbal form that represents the act as a finished whole is a terminate whether the duration of the act be long or short: “He went (here thought of as a finished whole, not as continuing) to church this morning.” “Last summer I built a fine new house.” “Next summer I expect to build a fine new house.” […]

4. Iterative Aspect. This type indicates an indefinitely prolonged succession of like acts: “He pooh-poohs at everything.” “He threw his head back and haw-hawed.” “Outside the wind blew gustily and set a loquacious tassel tap-tapping against a pane.” […]
A Domestic Conversation” by Dan Poston


He was sitting by the table, staring out the window, when she entered the kitchen. For a moment, she looked at him, ridiculous in his ragged blue robe and uncombed hair, and wanted to roll her eyes. She didn’t, though; he looked up at her all too soon, anxious to share his thoughts.

She turned to the dirty dishes lying on the counters and in the sink, not wanting to encourage him. It was maddening to hear him talk lately.

“Where have you been?”

She clanked dishes into the dishwasher. “Went to the grocery store. Then I was outside raking the leaves.”

Where have you been? Maybe that was the question he wanted her to ask. Why have you been in bed for half the day? Maybe that was it; maybe that was the question he wanted to answer. But she wouldn’t ask it. Not today. She was tired of his answers.

She opened the cabinet and looked at the containers to make sure she had what she needed to bake her chicken casserole tonight. Really, she could do this. She could go on with the day as she’d gone on with every other day before. It didn’t matter if he wanted to sit around all day, looking out every window in the house, amazed at the greatness of his own thoughts. She could go on.

Unless he talked, that is.

“Marianne, do you ever wonder why we do this?”

She focused harder. It was the cloves she was looking for.

“Do what, Henry?” She succeeded in making herself sound as if she were talking to a child.

“All of this. Everything we do.”

She left the cabinet open and found her recipe box on a shelf on the other side of the room. “I don’t know, Henry. Maybe because we have a church social to go to tonight.”

He looked at her and made that “don’t play games with me” face that he had learned to use so aptly as a father. She was too busy thumbing through the recipe cards to take notice.

“You know that’s not what I mean, Marianne.”

She scanned the card quickly. There it was. The cream of mushroom soup. How could she have forgotten that? She walked behind Henry to the large cabinet that held the soup cans and opened the door to peer inside, hating to be so close to him.

“I’m tired of this, Marianne. I’m tired of church socials on weekends and work on weekdays. I’m tired of pretending it all means something, tired of people thinking that we know anything about anything.”

Tired, Henry? Are you still “tired of work” after calling in sick every day this week, lying around like a dead dog? Are you tired of church because you sit in the back and let your arrogant eyes chastise everyone who tries to talk to you? You’re tired, Henry? Well, we’re tired of you. Tired of your life crisis and your “deep thoughts.”

Cream of mushroom soup. There wasn’t any. She’d have to go back down to the grocery store.

“Do you want me to call the church and tell them you aren’t coming?” She walked back to the other side of the room and closed the cabinet door.

“No, Marianne! That’s ridiculous.” He paused. “I just want you to talk with me.”

She scrubbed the counter where the dirty dishes had left stains, trying to ignore the way she felt compelled to turn around and face him.

Finally, he broke the tension, turning his eyes away from her and back to the window. “Marianne, I just need to think about things. I need time to think over the things that I wouldn’t think about otherwise. That’s all.”

There was one spot, a coffee stain that had been there for years, that drove her crazy. She pressed the washcloth into it, grinding back and forth furiously. She half muttered it: “It’s taken you fifty years. …”

“Fifty years for what?” He didn’t understand. Not for a second.

Fifty years, Henry, to see what you know when you’re four years old. To see that the world is big, Henry.

“Fifty years to get tired of everything.” It was a half-truth, at least.

He ignored it. “Marianne, they say even Einstein didn’t know ninety-nine percent of the reasons for why things happen. He just explained what he saw. They’ll tell you about atoms and forces and energy, but they really don’t know anything, Marianne. Not anything.”

She turned around and looked at her husband, throwing the dishcloth back into the sink. He was staring out the window again, consumed in the abstractness of his thoughts. Don’t talk to me about all that, Henry. I don’t know anything about it. Do you know your granddaughter is thinking about having a baby, Henry? Can you feel that? Can you feel the four funerals we went to over the last ten years, the last days we saw each one of our parents? What’s eighty years of life, Henry, and who cares? Who cares, Henry?

“I have to go to the grocery store again. Do you need anything?” She went into the next room to get her coat and purse.

Henry got out of his chair and followed her. “What do you think, Marianne?”

She looked at him for a moment and then breezed past him, through the kitchen to the garage door. “I guess I don’t understand it, Henry.”

He came into the kitchen again, looking urgently at her. “Marianne – ”

She cocked her head towards him, politely, apathetically obedient. “Yes?”

“When are you going to face yourself?”

She sighed, reaching for the keys on the wall and opening the door. “I’m going grocery shopping, Henry.”

She shut the door behind her, letting its echo ring hollowly in the kitchen. There was nothing to say to him today, nothing that mattered more than the fact that she felt like she was choking, in his house and in his car.

The Catcher in the Rye” by Jerome David Salinger


I was way early when I got there, so I just sat down on one of those leather couches right near the clock in the lobby and watched the girls. A lot of schools were home for vacation already, and there were about a million girls sitting and standing around waiting for their dates to show up. Girls with their legs crossed, girls with their legs not crossed, girls with terrific legs, girls with lousy legs, girls that looked like swell girls, girls that looked like they’d be bitches if you knew them. It was really nice sightseeing, if you know what I mean. In a way, it was sort of depressing, too, because you kept wondering what the hell would happen to all of them. When they got out of school and college, I mean. You figured most of them would probably marry dopey guys. Guys that always talk about how many miles they get to a gallon in their goddam cars. Guys that get sore and childish as hell if you beat them at golf, or even just some stupid game like ping-pong. Guys that are very mean. Guys that never read books. Guys that are very boring. – But I have to be careful about that. I mean about calling certain guys bores. I don’t understand boring guys. I really don’t. When I was at Elkton Hills, I roomed for about two months with this boy, Harris Macklin. He was very intelligent and all, but he was one of the biggest bores I ever met. He had one of these very raspy voices, and he never stopped talking, practically. He never stopped talking, and what was awful was, he never said anything you wanted to hear in the first place. But he could do one thing. The sonuvabitch could whistle better than anybody I ever heard. He’d be making his bed, or hanging up stuff in the closet – he was always hanging up stuff in the closet – it drove me crazy – and he’d be whistling while he did it, if he wasn’t talking in this raspy voice. He could even whistle classical stuff, but most of the time he just whistled jazz. He could take something very jazzy, like “Tin Roof Blues,” and whistle it so nice and easy – right while he was hanging stuff up in the closet – that it could kill you. Naturally, I never told him I thought he was a terrific whistler. I mean you don’t just go up to somebody and say, “You’re a terrific whistler.” But I roomed with him for about two whole months, even though he bored me till I was half crazy, just because he was such a terrific whistler, the best I ever heard. So I don’t know about bores. Maybe you shouldn’t feel too sorry if you see some swell girl getting married to them. They don’t hurt anybody, most of them, and maybe they’re secretly all terrific whistlers or something. Who the hell knows? Not me.
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