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|Министерство образования Российской Федерации|
Пермский государственный технический университет
Кафедра общенаучных дисциплин
ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
для студентов I курса всех специальностей
дневной формы обучения
Составители: старшие преподаватели Ивонина Л.К.,
В предлагаемом пособии содержятся тексты для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы. В основе построения пособия – принцип интенсивного обучения. Каждый из предложенных текстов включает в себя основной словарь – минимум, грамматические упражнения и творческие задания для ознакомительного чтения, обсуждения и развития навыков разговорной речи.
Пособие предназначегно для студентов I курса всех специальностей дневной формы обучения и тематически связано с разговорными темами, предлагаемыми на I-м курсе.
Пособие снабжено приложениями для чтения с информацией об англоязычных странах.
© Пермский государственный технический университет, 2001
LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES
“He, who knows no foreign language, does not know his own one”.
Why Do You Learn Foreign Language?
— Is it easy for you to learn foreign language?
— Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and efforts.
— Why do you learn foreign language?
— Nowadays it is especially important to know foreign language. Some people learn language, because they need it for their work, others travel abroad, for the third studying language is a hobby. Everyone, who knows foreign language can speak to people from other countries, read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider.
— Why do you. learn exactly English?
— Nowadays English has become the world's most important language in politics, science, trade and cultural relations.
— Do many people in the world speak English as a mother language (tongue)?
— Over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South Africa Republic. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations.
— What language is used by scientists?
— Half of the world's scientific literature is in English. It is the language of computer technology. To know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated man, for every good specialist.
1). Великий немецкий поэт Гёте однажды сказал: «Тот, кто не знает иностранного языка, не знает и своего собственного».
2). Изучение иностранных языков особенно важно сегодня.
3). Некоторые люди изучают языки, потому что они нужны им в работе, другие путешествуют за границу, для третьих изучение иностранных языков — хобби.
4). Каждый год тысячи людей из России едут в разные страны как туристы или работать.
5). Они не могут обойтись без знания языка страны, в которую они едут.
6). Современный инженер и даже рабочий не смогут работать с импортным станком или машиной, если он не в состоянии прочитать инструкцию, как это сделать.
7). Ученый, историк, дипломат являются, как правило, полиглотами, потому что иностранные языки нужны им в их работе.
2) Discuss the problem in groups of 3-5 students. You may find the following expressions helpful:
to express your opinion
I think … I suppose …
Speaking for myself … I’m sure …
I believe … In my opinion …
to agree with somebody
Yes, I agree (with you) I think so too
That's true You are quite right
to disagree with somebody
On the other hand ... It' s not (entirely) true
I don't agree (with you) I don't think so
3) Fill in the chart and give your reasons for your decision.
THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Until the few centuries ago there were many natives of what we call the British Isles, who didn't speak English. The Western land of Wales spoke Welsh; in the farthest north and the islands of Scotland the language was Gaelic; and a similar language, Irish Gaelic, was spoken in Ireland; Manx was the language of the Isles of Manx and Cornish that of the south-western tip of Britain.
In Scotland the Gaelic Language Society has existed for eighty years. It's dedicated to preserving the traditions of the Gaelic songs, verse and prose. And nowadays more and more people in the Lowland areas of Scotland, as well as the islands, where Gaelic is still spoken, want to learn the language. Since 1970s many people go to evening classes and learn Gaelic. Gaelic can be chosen for the final exam. In Wales the Welsh Language Society was founded in 1962 and since that time it has been trying to restore Welsh to an equal place with English. In 1967 Welsh was recognized as an equal language for use in law courts. In Wales some of the programmes of the IVth channel are broadcast in Welsh.
English is spoken as a native language by more than 300 million people, most of them living in North America, the British Isles, Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean and South Africa. In several of these countries English isn't the sole language (e. g. in Canada — French is also spoken; many Irish and Welsh speak the Celtic language). But English is the second language for governmental, commercial, social or educational activities in the countries where native language isn't English.
In about 25 countries English has been used as an official language (either it is the sole official language there, or it shares that status with other languages).
Most of these countries are former British territories. Even more widely English is studied and used as a foreign language. It has already acquired international status. It is used for communication, listening, reading, broadcast, in commerce and travel.
Half of the world's scientific literature is in English. It is the language of automation and computer technology. It is not only the universal language of international aviation, shipping and sport, it is also the universal language of literacy and public communication. It is the major language of diplomacy and it is the most frequently used language in the general conduct of UN business.
Only in the course of the last hundred years English has become a world language. In Shakespeare's time it was "provincial" language of secondary importance. Only б million people spoke English.
From the British Isles English spread all over the world, but English hasn't always been the language of the people of those islands. When the Romans colonized England (the 1st century of our era), the country was inhabited by the Celtic tribes. Until the 5th century only the Celtic languages were spoken by the people of Britain. About the middle of the 5th century the British Isles began to be invaded by the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, who spoke dialects of the language which was the ancestor of the present-day English. Now we call it Old English. During fifteen hundred years that have passed since the Anglo-Saxon invasion English has changed considerably. It was influenced by the language of the Danish (Viking) invaders (in the 8—10th century).
Between the 12th and 14th century English was influenced (both in grammar and vocabulary, and in its pronunciation) by Norman French. In the 14th—16th century quite a number of Latin and Greek words were introduced into English.
English belongs to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
HISTORY OF EDUCATION
1. As long as we live we continue to learn, and the education we receive when we are young helps us to continue learning. We are taught to read and write, and are taught many of the essential facts about the world and shown how to sort them out' so that later in life, we shall be able to find out things ourselves and not to ask other people.
The first teachers were fathers and mothers, but very early in the history of man children began to be taught by people other than their fathers and mothers. It is thought that schools first started in Egypt 5,000 to 6,000 years ago, and that it was the invention of writing which made them necessary. Reading and writing were quite different from the skills used in everyday life, and writing made it possible to store up knowledge which grew with each generation. Specially trained people were therefore needed to teach it.
2. Only the sons of nobles attended the first Egyptian schools, which taught reading, physical education and good behaviour. In ancient India the priestly caste decided what should be taught to each of the four castes, or groups, into which people were divided.
Only the priestly caste was allowed to learn the Hindu scriptures. In China, until the 19th century, education was organized according to social classes, and consisted largely of learning the scriptures by heart,
3. A clear example of the way in which even neighbouring peoples produce different types of education comes from ancient Greece. Sparta and Athens were two Greek states. The Spartans, hard and warlike people, gave a purely military education to their children. At the age of seven all boys of noble families were taken from their homes and sent to live in schools. They were kept under a very strict discipline and were taught hunting, military scouting, swimming and the use of weapons. The Spartans despised literature, and some people think they could not even read.
At the very same time, also for the nobles only, the Athenians were building what we call a liberal education - one that helps a man to develop all sides of his nature, helps him to make and appreciate beautiful things and helps him to find the best way of life They thought it important to educate the body as well as the mind, and had a programme of physical training which consisted of running, jumping, wrestling and throwing the discus. As time went on Athenian education paid special attention to reading, writing and literature and these were taught by a special teacher, known as the "grammatist". Common people were not educated, they were trained in craftsmanship, workmanship, trades.
Greek philosophers, or thinkers, always discussed what education should try to do and what it should include. Plato wrote a book called The Republic, which is one of the best books ever written on education, and since those days Greek ideas have influenced European education, especially secondary and university education.
4. The Romans were very good at organizing, and they were the first people to have schools run by the government free of charge. Throughout their great empire there was a network of these schools which provided for three stages of education.
At six or seven all boys (and some girls) went to the primary school, where they learned “three R's”: reading, writing, and arithmetic. Most children were not taught more than this, but at 12 or 13, boys of the rich families went on to the "grammar" school to study the Greek and Latin languages and literatures, that is, what had
been written in those languages. At 16, young nobles who wanted to enter politics or the service of their country went to the schools of rhetoric to be trained in rhetoric, or public speaking.
5. In Great Britain the first teachers we read about were craftsmen. They taught children to read, write and count, to cook and mend their own shoes. In the early 19th century the main system of teaching was the "Monitor" system. The teacher could manage a class of 100 or more by using older pupils or "monitors" to help him. The schools had long desks which were sometimes arranged in tiers so that the teacher could see every child in a large class.
Remember the words and expressions:
essential – существенный, важный, необходимый
to sort out – отбирать, распределять (по сортам)
to find out – узнать, выяснить, понять
to store up knowlegde – накапливать знания
skills – навыки
nobles – знать
the priestly caste – привилегированная каста духовенства
scripture – библия, священное писание, священная книга
Hindu [`hin`du] – индус, индусский
by heart [hα:t] – наизусть
to despise – презирать
a liberal education – гуманитарное образование
to appreciate – (высоко) ценить, понимать
craftsmanship – ремесло, мастерство, искусство
workmanship – ремесло, мастерство
to influence – оказывать влияние, влиять
schools run by the government – школы, находящиеся в ведении государства
free of charge - бесплатный
to provide – обеспечивать
the “Monitor” system – Ланкастерская система образования, при которой старшие ученики следят за младшими.
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