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|МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ|
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО
«ИЖЕВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ: ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ
Ижевск, издательство ИжГТУ
ББК 81.4 Англ. – 923
Пособие по английскому языку для машиностроительных вузов: - Ижевск:
Издательство ИжГТУ, 2003 - 128 с.
Данное пособие предназначено для студентов II курса спец. 1201, 1202 и направлено на подготовку их к самостоятельной работе над научно-технической литературой на английском языке. Для обучения различным видам чтения отобраны адаптированные и неадаптированные тексты, содержащие большое количество терминологии по специальности для перевода со словарем и без словаря. К текстам даны разнообразные задания, способствующие закреплению лексического и грамматического материала, и последующему использованию его в дискуссиях и диалогах.
Пособие снабжено кратким англо-русским словарем, списком общепринятых сокращений и списком составных предлогов, встречающихся в технической литературе.
1. Ferrous metals, 5
2. Steel , 8
3. Non-ferrous metals, 11
4. Properties of engineering materials and methods of testing them, 14
1. Chipping metal and chipping tools, 18
2. Metal-cutting and Locksmith's cutting tools, 20
3. Filing and filing tools, 23
4. Mechanical tools, 26
5. Measuring tools and devices, 28
6. Machine-cutting tools, 33
7. Drills and drilling, 38
8. Threading tools, 41
9. Methods of holding tools between centers, 43
10. Holding work in a chuck, 46
11. Holding work in a vice, 49
1. Welding, 53
2. Induction brazing and soldering, 56
3. Threads, 59
4. Gears, 62
5. Belt and chain drives, 66
6. Bearings, 69
7. Clutches, 72
1. Lathes, 76
2. Drilling machines, 81
3. Milling machines, 85
4. Planers, 89
5. Shapers and slotters, 93
6. Grinding and grinding machines, 96
TEXTS FOR HOME READING
1. The Russian metallurgist D.K. Chernov, 101
2. Oxygen in the Bessemer converter, 101
3. Oxygen enrichment in the blast furnace, 102
4. Oxygen for direct reduction of iron ore, 102
5. Crucible furnace, 103
6. Portable hardness tester, 103
7. High-speed precision ball bearing testing machines, 104
Составные предлоги, 105
Англо-русский словарь, 106
MACHINE-BUI LDING MATERIALS
Different metals are widely used in the machine-building industry. Metals applied for industrial purposes are called "engineering metals". There are two groups of metals: ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals.
l. FERROUS METALS
Ferrous metals consist of iron combined with carbon, silicon, phosphorous and other elements. Carbon is the most important ol all elements present in ferrous alloys. Ferrous metals are used in industry in two general forms: steel and cast iron, which differ in the quantity of carbon content. These two ferrous alloys are derived from pig iron which is produced in a blast furnace in the form of pigs. Metals are usually melted and poured into a form which is called a "mould". This process is known as casting. The cast metal is shaped in the mould where it cools and solidifies. Thus one can cast different objects known as castings. The shop where metals are cast is called a "foundry". Castings are used in building engines, automobiles and airplanes, and different types of machinery. Steel is iron with a very little carbon content (from 0.05 to 1.7 per cent), which makes it much stronger than iron and is therefore widely used in machine-building. But very much carbon makes steel brittle, which reduces its strength. Therefore the carbon content in steel is confined to certain limits. Cast iron contains a higher percentage of carbon than steel does (more than 2.0 per cent). It is very cheap, in fact, it is the cheapest of all the engineering metals used in machine-building. Grey iron foundries are the most numerous because grey iron can be cast into almost any conceivable shape and size. Grey iron is also adapted to a great variety of castings, such as automobile, gas, steam, and hydraulic engine cylinders, bed plates for machines, car wheels, agricultural machinery parts, furnace and stove parts, water pipes, gears, and general machinery parts. The nature of the metal used for grey iron castings is such that castings can be made so hard that ordinary tool steel will not cut them or, on the other hand, so soft that they can be readily machined. However, in comparison with other casting metals grey iron is weak and will not stand great shock. Hence, the engineer must allow a large factor of safety1 when specifying the use of iron castings, especially where great strength is required, or specify that the castings must be made from some other metal .The alloy of grey castings is composed of iron, carbon, silicon, phosphorus, manganese, and sulphur. These elements are used in different proportions depending on the grade of castings.
Alloy Grey Iron. In many lines of manufacture and engineering, common grey iron castings have lacked in strength and wearing qualities, so that many experiments have been conducted with a view to overcome this short-coming. This has been accomplished, and the alloy is known as alloy grey iron, which is to machine because most of the carbon present is in free or uncombined state. It is used much2, if not entirely, for making steam- and gas-engine cylinders, also for many other castings that require greater strength and wearing qualities than
are furnished by common grey iron. Alloy grey iron is one of the latest alloys developed and has a promising future. It has a tensile strength of 40,000 to 60,000 lbs. per square inch3 as it comes from the mould, and when it is heat-treated, a much greater strength is produced. Malleable iron castings are being increasingly used every year in the manufacture of machinery.
Many castings that were formerly made of grey cast iron are now made of malleable iron. One of the reasons for using malleable iron instead of grey iron is that malleable iron is much stronger than grey iron castings, particularly in the matter of4 resisting shock. Malleable iron castings can be made much thinner in section. However, they are seldom used in the form they come from the moulds, as they are hard and brittle, and therefore they should be annealed. Malleable iron before annealing is usually spoken of as white iron. White iron is difficult to machine because most of the carbon present is in chemical combination with the iron. Malleable iron can be cast into very large bodies on account of its high shrinkage and because of the difficulty of annealing. It is the most easily machined of all ferrous alloys. It has to be melted very hot and poured very rapidly, be because it solidifies quickly. Malleable iron castings are used in agricultural machinery, railroad equipment, automobile parts, and many other products.
The metal is usually tested for tensile strength and elongation. The tensile strength ranges from 38,000 to 55,000 lbs. per square inch and the elongation is usually about 20 to 25 per cent.
1 a large factor of safety - большой коэффициент безопасности
2 it is used much - он широко используется
3 lb. per square inch - фунт на квадратный дюйм
4 in the matter of - в отношении
I. Use the following words and phrases in sentences of your own:
ferrous metals, steel, cast iron, mould, alloy, pig iron, blast furnace, grey iron, to solidify, foundry, to cast, engineering metals, tool steel, to machine, alloy grey iron, to furnish, malleable iron, to anneal, tensile strength, non-ferrous metals, on account of, grade, to elongate, range, shop.
II. Answer the following questions:
l. What are the main two groups of metals? 2. What elements do ferrous metals consist of? 3. What is the difference between iron and steel? 4. What is casting? 5. What do we call the shop where metals are cast? 6. Why is steel widely used in machine-building? 7. What are the main types of iron castings?
III. State the forms and functions of the ing-forms and translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Machine-building industry is the leading branch of heavy industry. 2. The work of casting metals is performed in foundries. 3. Metals consisting of iron with some other elements are known as ferrous metals. 4. Engineering metals are used in industry in the
form of alloys because the properties of alloys are much better than those of pure metals. 5. Steel is iron containing from 0.05 to 1.7 per cent carbon. 6. The blast furnace is called so because a blast of hot air is forced into it while producing the pig iron. 7. Malleable iron before annealing is usually called "white iron". 8. For separating iron from impurities the iron ore must be melted at a very high temperature produced by burning coke in a blast furnace.
IV. Fill in the blanks with prepositions because of, of, for, in, with:
1. Metals are ... great importance ... our life ... their useful properties. 2. They are widely used ... industrial purposes. 3. There are two large groups ... metals: simple metals and alloys. 4. Alloys consist... a simple metal combined ... some other elements. 5. Almost all the metals are found ... the earth's crust... the form ... ores.
V. Translate the following sentences with the predicates in the passive form, then change the predicates into active form:
Example: Metals are usually melted and poured by founders into a form which is called a "mould".
Founders usually melt and pour metals into a form which is called a "mould".
1. Different metals are produced by people in different ways. 2. Three methods are now used by us for producing pig iron. 3. Ferrous metals are used in industry in two general forms such as steel and cast iron. 4. The iron ore charged into the furnace has been melted by the heat produced by the coke burning in the blast of hot air. 5. Malleable iron castings are being increasingly used in industry. 6. Great shock will not be stood by grey iron. 7. The heat in the electric furnace was produced by electricity.
VI. Find in the text nouns for the following verbs:
to cast, to alloy, to anneal, to compare, to manufacture, to machine, to equip, to produce.
VII. Make up questions to which the italicized words are the answers:
1. Many experiments have been conducted to improve the qualifies of grey iron castings. 2. Some castings require great strength and wearing qualities. 3. Malleable iron castings are much stronger than grey iron castings. 4. Malleable iron can be cast into very large bodies. 5. Metals are usually tested for tensile strength and elongation.
VIII. Translate the following text in written form using a dictionary:
Production of castings made from different metals requires different types of melting furnaces. The cupola furnace is usually used for melting grey iron. The air cupola, and electric furnaces are used to melt the metal for making malleable iron castings. For melting steel, the open-hearth, crucible or electric furnaces are used. Non-ferrous metals are generally melted in crucibles or electric furnaces. The fuels
mostly used for melting metals are coke, coal, oil and gas. Besides the different types of furnaces, different kinds of moulding sand are also required for making the moulds for different metals. -In many cases, it is necessary as well to treat either the metals or the castings in some special way before the castings can be used.
Steel is a ferrous material with some carbon content. There are two kinds of steel: carbon and alloy steel. The content of carbon in steel may vary from 0.1 to 1.0 per cent. Carbon steel should contain only iron and carbon without any other alloying elements and is divided into:
(1) Machine steel with a low carbon content from 0.05 to 0.15 per cent
(2) Medium carbon steel with a carbon content from 0.15 to 0.60 per cent
(3) Tool steel with a high carbon content from 0.6 to 1.50 per cent Carbon steels are the most common steels used in industry, their properties depending only on the percentage of carbon they contain. Machine steels are very soft and can be used for making machine parts that do not need strength. Medium carbon steels are better grade and stronger than machine steels. Tool steel may be used for manufacturing tools and working parts of machines because of its high strength and hardness.
Alloy steels are those in which in addition to carbon an alloying element is present in some appreciable quantity. They are divided into special alloy steels and high-speed steels which, in turn, are called "self-hardening steels". Alloying elements of these steels are: nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, etc. These alloying elements have a. definite effect on the characteristic of the steel; nickel increases its strength and hardness; a high percentage of chromium makes steel rust-resistant and in this case it is called "stainless steel". The addition of some tungsten and molybdenum gives heat-resistant steel .Vanadium makes steel corrosion, shock and vibration-resistant. The sand used for making moulds for steel castings differs greatly from that used in other branches of moulding. It must be much more refractory and open grained1, because the metal is poured at an extremely high temperature and solidifies very rapidly. If the sand is not refractory enough, it will fuse with the metal. The sand being not open grained, the gases will not escape from the mould rapidly enough, and blowholes will be formed in the casting. Many good steel castings are obtained with green sand moulds. Sand moulds are made by shaping the moulding sand around a pattern which is to have the same shape as the finished object, but their size should be a little larger as the steel casting shrinks while cooling. Moulding sand is to be mixed with water in a certain proportion. Many of the smaller steel castings are used as they come from the moulds, but most of the larger ones have to be annealed to relieve the cooling strains formed when the metal solidifies. Steel can be used for a great variety of castings, and it can be cast into very large bodies.
Cast steel parts enter into the make-up2 of railroad equipment, agricultural machinery, and many other products where great strength is required. The tensile strength of steel castings is from 55,000 to 70,000 lbs. per square inch. Alloy steel castings are coming into more general use with each year, and they are
influencing the manufacturing methods. It has been found possible to cast with this alloy some shapes that formerly were necessarily made in other ways. It is used in castings where the greatest strength is needed. Much research is being done to improve not only its strength, but also its wearing qualities. Castings are now produced that have a tensile strength from 70,000 to 150,000 lbs. per square inch, the strength depending upon the composition of the alloy and the method of heat treatment.
1. It must be much more refractory and open grained – он должен быть ещё более огнестойким и крупнозернистым
2. make-up – состав
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