Налоги и налогообложения




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Practice with comparatives and superlatives



Ask yourself these questions about comparatives and superlatives. 1. Is the comparative or superlative form correct?


a. Short adjectives.

One-syllable adjectives and adverbs form their comparative and superlative forms by adding -er and -est to the base.


Base

Comparative

Superlative

cheap

cheaper

cheapest

small

smaller

smallest


When we add -er or -est to adjectives, there are sometimes changes in spelling.

big bigger biggest


b. Longer adjectives.

Two-syllable adjectives and adverbs adding in -er, - y, -ly . and a few other two-syllable adjectives (quiet, simple, narrow, gentle). add -er, or -est to the base form.

clever cleverer cleverest


Adjectives ending in a consonant + -y , change -y into -i and add -er, or -est.

easy easier easiest


c. Some two-syllable adjectives and adverbs and ail those with three or more syllables use "more" and "most" with the base form.

expensive more expensive most expensive

boring more boring most boring

modem more modem most modem

happily more happily most happily


Some two-syllable adjectives can take either er/-est or more/most, e.g. polite, common, pleasant, stupid.

common more common most common


    1. Irregular comparatives and superlatives are as follows:



good (adj.)

better

best

well (adv.)

better

best

bad (adj.)

worse

worst

badly (adj.)

worse

worst

little (adj. and adv.)

less

least

many (adj.)

more

most

much (adj. and adv. )

more

most

far (adj. and adv.)

farther, further

farthest, furthest

late (adj. and adv.)

later

last (final)







latest (most recent)

old (adj.)

older, elder

oldest, eldset


* Note that further ( but not farther ) сan mean "more" or "in addition", e.g. Stop doing it if you have any further complaints. (=(iny more complainte)

** We use older/oldest but not elder/eldest in comparisons.

e.g. My sister is older than Me. ( not elder than me)

We use elder/eldest (often before a noun. e.g. sister, son...etc.) mostly to talk about members of a family. (mу elder sister)


2. Is the comparative or superlative used correctly?


a. Comparatives and superlatives are used to modify a noun or after a verb.

The higher price would discourage the customers.

The lowest price I сап afford is $47 per unit.

A point in time cornes when the financial sacrifice is greater than the satisfaction of eating bananas.


b. After a comparative we often use than. (Note: The words «the» and "than" are not used together in a comparative structure).

In wartime the utility of bombs is higher than the utility of pianos.

For maritime nations submarines are more useful than for mountain republics like Switzerland.


In an informai style we use object pronouns, e.g. me, him after than: You are a wiser consumer than me.


In a more formai style we use a subject pronoun, e.g. I, he+ verb:

You are a wiser consumer than I am.


Some people think that the subject form + verb is more "correct".


c. Before a comparative we can use (very)much, a lot, a little, a (little)bit, rather or far:

very much taller a lot more important a little cheaper

a bit more expensive rather colder far more interesting


Before a superlative we often use by far or easily:

by far the cheapest easily the most attractive


d. The superlative is used in the following structures:

– With prepositions

This priee is the most reasonable of all.

Не has the best stock of this cornmodity in* the world.


*After superlatives we use in to show what place we are talking about.


Of is not normally used, but it is possible in expressions the happiest day of my life, the hottest day of the year and after a superlative without a noun:

This is the least expensive of the butcher's products.

– With clauses

Rye bread here is the best I'm likely to find.


3. Is the expression of equality and inequality used correctly?

Expression of equality or inequality can be made using the base form of the adjective or adverb with "as ... as", "not as ...as", "not so ... as".


We use as...as to say that two people, things, ... etc. are the same in the same way.

This brand of bread is as tasty as that one but it is valued not so highly as the first one.

Our basic needs are not as/so complex as our additional individual wants.


4. Is the parallel comparison used correctly?

When a two-clause sentence begins with a comparative, the second clause also begins with a comparative.

The hisher the price is, the fewer bananas we buy.


Exercise 1.


Maria is slightly fat. She is speaking about the problems of losing weight.

Complete what Maria says using comparatives of the adjectives in brackets; add than where necessary.

"Oh, Why is bread such a tasty thing! I think it's much more difficult (much / difficult) to do without bread than any other food. Sometimes I feel that my waist is getting__1_ (fat), not__2__(thin)! When you first start dieting, it seems__3__(a lot easy) doing exercises and cutting down on bread looks__4__(much / simple). However, when you become__5__ (a little / advanced), it gets__6__(a lot / complicated). There are also so many brands at the baker's! My will appears to be far too weak! I’m al-ready looking for something__7__(rather / efficient) cutting down bread."


Exercise 2


Underline any comparative that is used incorrectly.

e.g. Northern Mexico generally receives the less rain than does Central Mexico.

You should underline the less rain than because the words the and than are not used together in a comparative structure.


  1. Fancy bread is the more tasty and popular of ail kinds of bread in the shop.

  2. lowa produces the more feed corn than any other state.

  3. The cheaper of the two suitcases was more suitable for short trips.

  4. The northern side of the settlement has a better supply of foodstuffs.

  5. Waiting to be reduced is higher of the two priees.

  6. Evaluating the quality of a product can be difficult for a customer. The higher the quality, the higher the price.

  7. Choices are not simpler for consumers because many factors influence buying decisions.

  8. More often than not a smart buyer makes best buying decisions than an inexperienced one.


Exercise 3

Complete these sentences about the world today using the structure:





e.g. Computers are becoming more and more important in our lives. (important)


1. The world's population is getting___. (big)

2. The problem of feeding ail the people in the world is getting ___. (bad)

3. Many of the world seas, rivers and lakes are becoming___. (polluted)

4. Life is becoming___. (automated)


Exercise 4

Make sentences using the structure:





e.g. (small) a purchase is /(easy) it is to adjust the budget

The smaller a purchase is, the easier it is to adjust the budget.


1. (complicated) the problem / (hard) it is to find a solution.

2. (wise) the choice is / (good) the quality of a product is.

3. (big) a car is / (expensive) it is to run.

4. (bad) the weather / (dangerous) it is to drive on the roads.

5. (old) he gets / (thoughtful) he becomes.

6. (fast) he tried to work / (little) he was able to accomplish.

7. (many) advances and improvements are made in technology, (convenient) the banking transactions become.

8. (much) populated the area becomes, (much) noise one has to contend with.


Exercise 5

Put  for correct sentences; rewrite the incorrect ones.

e.g. He is the intelligentest of ail the people at the Academy.


You should underline " the intelligentest" because the correct superlative is " the most intelligent."


1. This is one of most expensive restaurants in Milton.

2. Let your child choose the most and the least expensive ways to purchase goods.

3. Only a smartest consumer knows how to use advertising for his pur-poses.

4. The water in Half-Moon Bay is the bluest of blues.

5. I think that was one of the worse days of my life.

6. This is the coldest day in the month.

7. My neighbour is one of the boringest people I know.

8. What is the most popular brand of beer in your pub?

9. Tell me if you have any farther problems. (= any more problems)

10. The eldest customer was given a free basket of food.


Exercise 6


Task 1.

Complete the sentences using as...as and the adjectives in the box.

e.g. Are you as old as Mike ? - No, I am younger than he is.





1. Jill is almost._____her father. She is 164 cm and he is 166 cm.

2. It didn't take long to walk to the station. It wasn't____I’d thought it was.

3. "Was the exam____you'd expected?" "No, it was much harder".

4. Going by coach is almost _____ taking the train. They both cost around $100.


Task 2.

Make comparisons using isn't as/so ...as and the adjective in brackets.


e.g. Japon /India (large / industrialised)

Japon isn 't as/so large as India. But India isn't as/so industrialised as Japan.


5. a giraffe / an elephant ( tall / strong /fast )

6. iron / gold ( strong / valuable )

7. a gorilla / a human ( intelligent / strong )

8. a car / a bicycle ( expensive / fast / easy to park )


Exercise 7


Render the following into English.


1. – Посмотри! Это новый сорт хлеба, его рекламируют по ТВ каждый день. Цена кажется высокой ...

– Да, совершенно верно, но этот хлеб пахнет и вправду хорошо и выглядит восхитительно! Я за то, чтобы его купить.


2. Пожалуйста, прислушайся к моим словам внимательно: вот эта большая черная кожаная сумка чуть-чуть дороже, но я думаю, что ее качество гораздо лучше, чем у той сумки из искусственной кожи. Общеизвестно, что чем выше качество, тем более высокую цену вы должны заплатить за товар.


3. Во времена дефицита контроль над ценами так же важен, как и введение карточек на продукты питания и потребительские товары.


4. Научные исследования подтверждают тот факт, что чем больше единиц товара покупает потребитель, тем меньше становится его желание иметь этот товар. Экономисты называют эту тенденцию "Закон об убывающей предельной полезности".


5. – По-моему, разнообразие потребительских товаров на рынке делает проблему выбора нужного вам товара более сложной.

– Я полностью согласен с тобой, но думаю, что выбрать товар не так сложно, как оценить качество продукта.

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