Скачать 6.88 Kb.
Task 1. Familiarize yourself with the text and fill in the following chart with the italicized words from the text. Consult the Grammar notes below. Translate the text into Russian. Supply it with the suitable title.
The company of Harper & Grant Ltd. was started forty-two years ago by two men: Ambrose Harper and Wingate Grant. Wingate Grant died many years ago, and his son Hector, who is in his fifties (aged between fifty and sixty) is the present Managing Director, Ambrose Harper is the Chairman. Не is now an old man, semi-retired, but he still cornes in to the office regu-larly to attend the board meetings and keep an eye on the business.
The company started by making steel wastepaper bins for offices. With the increase in smoking, these were considered much safer than the old type of basket made of cane and straw, because there were less likelihood of fire. Old Mr. Grant, the Managing Director's father, put the business on its feet when he captured a big contract to supply government offices with steel wastepaper bins. He always said that luck, or happy coïncidence, turned a business into success orfailure. He was ramer like Napoleon, who always asked if an officer was lucky before giving him a higher command. Mr.Grant Senior used to tell the story that, in the week before he landed his contract, a cane wastepaper basket had caught fire in a government depart-ment, the fire had spread rapidly and destroyed a number of irreplaceable documents.
From wastepaper bins, Harper & Grant began to manufacture other items of office equipment: desks, chairs, cupboards, filling cabinets and smaller abjects, such as filing cabinets, stapling machines and so on, until now when there are fifty-six different items listed in their catalogue. Today, nearly ail the items produced by this company are made of pressed steel. The steel arrives in sheets from a steel works in South Wales. It is then eut by machinery into the required pieces; these pieces are then pressed into shape and fixed together by welding (joining two metal parts by heating so that the metals flow together), or by drilling holes in the metal and securing the two pieces with a boit or a rivet.
Task 2. Divide the text into several logical parts. Supply them with the headings.
A. With some words, when the stress is on the first syllable, the word is a noun. When the stress is on the second syllable, it is a verb. Sometimes the meanings are related ('progress - to pro'gress), they can also be quite different ('conduct - to con'duct). Consult a dictionary and underline the syllable that you will stress when speaking:
B. Note the pronunciation of the following pairs of words. Transcribe them and submit the examples of your own. Translate the words into Russian.
elaborate, n [ ] – elaborate, v [ ]
coordinate, n [ ] – coordinate, v [ ]
associate, n [ ] – associate, v [ ]
estimate, n [ ] – estimate, v [ ]
Ask yourself these questions when checking nouns.
1. What kind of noun is it? Is it a count or noncount?
Countable nouns can have singular or plural forms and take singular or plural verbs. You can put a number before this kind of noun and a / an .
People do not settle into one role, the role of a consumer; they seule into two major roles : of a consumer and a producer.
A producer makes the goods or provides the services that consumers use.
Noncount nouns refer to general things such as qualities, substances, or topics. They cannot be counted and have only a singular form. We do not normally use a/an or a number directly before uncountable nouns.
You may have several resources – time, energy, money, talent, knowledge and skills, charm, intelligence, imagination. Yet your resources are limited.
Nouns not normally countable in English
2. Is there a quantifier with the noun that can be used to identify the nature of the noun?
A quantifier is a word that indicates an amount or quantity.
a. Some quantifiers are used with both plural count nouns and noncount nouns.
all a lot of most
any plenty of some
enough more lots of
Goods which cannot be stored for any length of time without going bad are called "perishables ".
Any scarcity forces you to decide what y ou want most.
Children find that there are a lot of things in the world they want in early childhood.
A lot of money is needed to meet personal needs.
b. Some quantifiers are used only with noncount nouns.
a little much a large / small amount of a bit of
Too much money is needed to satisfy non-essential wants.
c. Some quantifiers are used only with plural count nouns.
both a few a couple of the majority of / a majority of
many several a number of dozens of/hundreds of
You probably want many things – clothes, entertainment, money for travelling.
d. Some quantifiers are used only with singular count nouns.
Later young people learn another lesson.
Each country will answer three major economie questions in a different way.
3. Is the form of a noun correct?
The plural form for most nouns has an -s or ( after -o;-s;-x;-ch;-sh) -es ending.
a. Some nouns form their plurals with a vowel change or an ending change (man/men). Penny can have a regular plural pennies when we are referring to separate coins (ten pennies) or a collective plural, pence, when we are referring to a total amount (tenpence).
Note the following nouns, which have irregular spelling in the plural:
* is used with a singular or plural verb (L.G. Alexander, "Longman English Grammar")
b. Some nouns form their plurals by changing a consonant before adding -s or -es, (wolf- wolves; leaf- leaves; wife - wives) or by changing -y into -les (country - countries); except -ay,-ey, -oy, -uy (boy - boys)
c. Some nouns form their plurals by adding an ending. (child - children, ox - oxen)
d. Some have the same plural and singular forms.
bison deer offspring series means (средство)
corps fish spacecraft species works (завод)
• Exports, imports (количество или стоимость вывезенных или ввезенных товаров) take a plural verb but export, import (процесс ввоза или вывоза) are singular.
• Note mat dozen and score have the same plural and singular form if they go after the numeral: two dozen (of) eggs, three score (of) years (but scores / doz.ens ofpeople)
e. When a noun is used as an adjective, it takes a singular form.
The goods can be storedfor two weeks. ( noun)
This is a two-week store of goods.
We also use - 's with (or -s' with plural words) periods of time.
I've got a week's/three weeks' sick leave.
f. Collective nouns (crowd, firm, team, group, etc.) refer to an entire group. When these are groups of people we often think of them as a number of people (="they"), not as one thing (="it"). So we often use a plural verb:
The staff at the firm (-they) are not happy with outside consultants.
When a collective noun indicates a period of time, a sum of money, or a measurement, it takes a singular verb.
Two weeks is enough time to provide goods.
Ten dollars is not enough to meet the needs of a family.
g. Some nouns end in -s but are actually singular and take singular verbs. Academie subjects: economies, statistics, politics, mathematics...; news.
Economies if studied thoroughly influences how you earn a living.
But when the reference is specifie, the verb must be plural.
Their statistics are extremely helpful(статистические данные).
Nouns like crossroads, headquarters, kennels, series, species, and works (=factory) are singular when they refer to one:
John hasjust read a series of articles about the recent discovery ofoil.
They are plural when they refer to more than one:
There are a lot of TV series about turning a business into success orfailure.
h. Many compound nouns are formed by using one noun (as an adjective) in front of another noun. When this happens, this first noun is almost always singular (even if the meaning is plural).
a toothbrush (a brushfor cleaning teeth)
a shoeshop (a shop which sells shoes)
We normally form plurals of compound nouns by adding -(e)s to the second word.
Foodstuffs belong to the category ofperishable goods.
But note that compounds ending in -in-law, -in-chief and -by add -s to the first word.
one brother-in-law – two-brothers-in-law
a passer-by – some passers-by
But where men or women is prefixed both parts are made plural.
men drivers women drivers
i. Goods (товар), clothes (одежда), riches (богатство), proceeds (выручка), wages (заработная плата), contents (содержание) normally* occur only in the plural and are followed by a plural verb.
By "perishable " we mean goods which cannot be storedfor any length of time without going bad.
* But in modem English one may corne across the following: Scarcity is the situation that exists when demandfor a good, service or resource is greater than supply.
Read the extract and construct 9 sentences on the pattern with the words in italics. Translate the sentences into Russian.
There is / are... at the factory of Harper & Grant LTD.
The factory consists ofworkshops where the actual making of a desk or filing cabinet is done. These are divided into the Tool Room(l), Works Stores(2), Press Shop(3), Machine Shops(4), Assembly Shop(5), Paint Shop(6), Inspection(7), Packing and Despatch Departments(8). There is also the Warehouse(9) where finished articles are stored waiting for sale.
Choose the correct form.
e.g. There were / was some imported goods in the store.
Choose the correct form.
e.g. I'd like some information / informations about the supply of goods.
If the underlined word or words are used incorrectly, make correction.
Choose the underlined word combination that is incorrect.
1. Hair found on the victim's iacket were studied by the police, which helped them to find the criminal.
A В С D
2. The knowledge of economies was passed from one generation to another generations.
A В С D
3. One series of statistical booklet that was used at the seminar was written by the students themselves.
A В С D
4. Examples of fixed expense are rent pavments, higher purchase instalments, tuition.
A В С D
5. Make a family budget with your adult childs identifying its monthly income and expenses.
A В С D
6. There are the data of our field survey over there on the files cabinet. They are very important.
A В С D
7. It was so difficult for a poor man to earn his living because he had to provide for his numerous son-in-laws
A В С
and other relatives.
8. John Martin has just read an article in "The Times" about the recent discovery of a large number of oil in the
A В С
9. There have never been any woman - managers at this works.
A В C D
10. The contents of the letter were not made public, but bad news travel fast.
A B C D
11. The Managing Director stopped to cool his temper a bit and the three stood motionless, like sheeps in the
stare of a python.
12. Tony's FBI criminal file described him as five-feet-eight. medium build, a hundred and fortv-six pounds.
A В С
black hairs, strong nose, brown eyes, arrested and charged with a bank robbery.
Render the following into English:
Read the text below. In most of the lines there is one wrong word or word combination. Some lines, however, are correct.
• If a line is correct, put a tick (V) in the space in the right-hand column.
• If there is a mistake in the line, write the correct word in the right-hand column.
• In what way do the managerial methods differ among the officiais in Harper & Grant Ltd.?
• What are the peculiarities of running a small business?
|Учебное пособие Для студентов специальности 0604 специализации «Налоги и налогообложение»|
Учебное пособие предназначено студентам специализации «налоги и налогообложение», преподавателям, читающим соответствующий курс,...
|Учебно-методический комплекс включает в себя программу курса, планы семинарских занятий, тематику докладов, тренинг, контрольные вопросы к экзамену и рекомендуемую литературу.|
Рассчитан для студентов дневной и заочной форм обучения факультета «налоги и налогообложения»
|"Новое в нормативном регулировании и актуальные проблемы практики налогообложения" программа спецкурса (40 часов) Цель спецкурса|
Овведений в законодательстве и нормативных актах рф, которые имели место за годовой период, предшествующий дате проведения занятий...
|Реформа налогообложения в кнр. Изменения в законодательные акты, регулирующие налогообложение ндс, налогом на хозяйственную деятельность и потребительским|
Целью является ликвидация двойного налогообложения предприятий ндс, уменьшение налоговой нагрузки при осуществлении предприятиями...
|Кафедра «Финансы и налоги»|
«Финансы» разработан в соответствии с требованиями Государственного образовательного стандарта высшего профессионального образования...
|Кафедра «Финансы и налоги»|
«Инвестиционная стратегия» разработан в соответствии с требованиями Государственного образовательного стандарта высшего профессионального...
|Кафедра «Финансы и налоги»|
«Инвестиционный анализ» разработан в соответствии с требованиями Государственного образовательного стандарта высшего профессионального...
|Рабочая программа дисциплины Основы социологии и политологии Направление подготовки 080107 «Налоги и налогообложение»|
Соответствует государственным требованиям к минимуму содержания и уровню подготовки выпускников по специальности 080107 Налоги и...
|Методические указания для выполнения контрольной работы по дисциплине «Налоги и налогообложение»|
Методические указания для выполнения контрольной работы по дисциплине «Налоги и налогообложение» (для студентов заочной и заочной...
|Объект(ы) налогообложения, сведения о котором(ых) содержатся в налоговом|