Налоги и налогообложения




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2.2 Practice with quantity



When we talk about quantity we use such words as :

some , any all, every, each

much, many, a lot, (a) little, (a) few both, either, neither

no, none more, most, half

Ask yourself these questions when checking quantity words:


1. Is the word order correct?

a. We can use these words ( except "none", " a lot", "half) directly be-fore a noun.

Have you got any money?

Both choices are equal.

There are some expenses involved.


b. We can use these words ( except " no", "every") before of + the. her, your, this, etc. + noun.

Either of the choices will satisfy human wants.

Neither of us accepted the offer.

Half (of) ту friends earn their living.

After "ail", "half" and "both" we can leave oui 'of before "the", "her", "ту","your", "this", etc.

Both of the tradeoffs were evaluated.


But after "ail", "half", and "both" we can't leave out "of" before an object pronoun.

Have you counted the opportunity costs? - Not all of them.


c. We can use these words ( except " no", every") alone, without nouns.

Can the students satisfy a lot of their wants wiîh their grants?

No, not many.


2. Should "some" or "any" be used?


a. We use some and any before plural nouns and uncountable nouns to talk about an indefmite quantity:

some money any money

some choices any choices


b. Some is mostly used in affirmative sentences and any - in negative sentences.

I’ve got some money, but he hasn't got any money.


c. We use any after the words with a negative meaning ( without any, hardly any ).

You can't make a choice between two possible uses of your resources without any opportunity со st.


d. We can use some or any after "if":

If you need some money, earn it.


e. We normally use any in " open" questions ( we don't expect a particular answer).

Have you got any information ?

But we use some in questions when expect people to say "yes".

Have you got some information? ( I think you have il).


We also use some in questions when we want to encourage people to say "yes" (in requests and commands).

Can you lend me some money?


f. We also use any to mean "it doesn't matter which" or "whichcver you like".

You can make any choice you like.

I can earn money any place I choose


3. Should "many", "much", "a lot (of)", "(a) little", or "(a) few" be used?

a. We use much and (a) little with uncountable nouns, and "many" and "(a) few" with plural countable nouns.

much information many tradeoffs

(a) little money `(a)few problems


We use "a lot of, "lots of with both uncountable and plural countable nouns.

a lot of money a lot ofchoices

lots ofmilk lots of questions

plenty oftime plenty of jobs

(a lot / lot = a great quantity or number; plenty = more than enough )

A lot of resources are used to produce goods and services.


b. We use much and many mostly in questions and in negative sentences.

How much work do you have ?

Has he got many problems ?

I haven't got much money.


Note: In affirmative sentences we normally use a lot (of), lots (of), plenty (of); not much and many.

You have got a lot of money (plenty of work).


But we often use "much" and "many" after "too", "as""so","very".

I've spent too much money.

I've got so many jobs today.


Note: The plan is much too complicated.


c. A little and a few are positive ideas. A little means a small amount. but some: a few means a small number, but some.

I've got a little money, so l could lend you some if you want.

I think he cashed a check a few minutes ago.


d. Little and few, without a are more negative ideas. Little means not much or almost no; few means not many, almost no.

It is an extremely poor country: it has few natural resources and little good agricultural land.


e. Little and few ( without a ) are rather formai. In everyday speech, it is more common to use " not much"; "not many", "only a little ( a few)", or "hardly any" ( = "almost no").

I've got very little money.

I've got not much money.

Hardly any students passed the exam.


4. Should "no" or "none" be used?

a. We use "no"(= not a , or not any) before a noun;

There is no production without costs.

There are no natural resources in this region.


We can use "no" before singular countable and uncountable nouns;

I've got no information about the construction of this plant.


b. "None" is a pronoun, we use it alone, without a noun.

How many concepts of opportunity costs are used to explain how the economy works? - None.


Before "ту", "this", "the", etc. or an object pronoun ("us", "them") we use none of.

None of the problems were serions enough.

None of us have any rnoney.


When we use "none of" with a plural noun, the verb can be singular or plural. A singular verb is more formal.

None of the costs is / are counted in ternis of money but also in tenus of resources used.


5. Are "ail", "every", "everybody", "everything". "whole" used cor-rectly?


a. "All" and "every".


"Every" has a similar meaning to "ail" and means "ail without exception".

All the students in the gmup passeed the exam in Economies.

All production involves a cost.


"All" is used with plural words, "every" is used with singular worcis only all people - everv persan

All people make a choice between two possible uses of their resonrces.

Every persan who buys a car cannot spend the saine monev for a stereo.


"All" but not "every" is used with uncountable nouns.

Have y ou spent all money on books ?


b. "All", "everybody" and "everything"


We do not normally use "all" alone, without a noun to mean "everybody", "everyone".


All the engineers tookpart in the discussion of a new plan.

Everybody took part in getting an import licence.


But we can use "all" to mean everything in the structure "ail (that)+relative clause"

Have you got all (that) y ou need?

We also use "all" to mean "the only thing(s)" or "nothing more".

All I want is to make the right economie choice.


c. "All" and "whole"


"Whole" means "complete" or "every part of it". It is normally used with singular countable nouns.

I've spent the whole day frying to catch him, but lie wasn't available.


We can use "the", "ту", "this". etc. with "all" and "whole". but the word order is different.


Compare: all the day - the whole day ; all my life - my whole life

We can use " a whole " before a singular noun.

We spent a whole day together.


But we don't use "whole" with uncountable nouns.

All the future personal growth is taken into consideration.

(Not: The whole growth...)


d "All day" and "every day".


We use "all" with Singular countable nouns: day, moming, week, year... to mean "the whole of"

I worked hard all day. (=the whole day).


We use "every" with day, morning, etc..., to say how often something happens.

I work hard every day (=Monday, Tuesday, etc...)


We can use "the whole day / morning", etc. instead of "all day / morning", etc.

I've been seeking the right solution the whole mornins /all moming.

"The whole" is stronger in that case.


6. Should we use "every" or "each"?

We use "every" when we think of a whole group; we use "each " when we think ofthe members ofthe group separately, one at a time.

I asked every persan at the Each persan evaluated tradeoffs between

meeting the same question. two possiblen choices.


7. Should we use "both", "either", or "neither"?


a. "Both" = "the two together" or "one and the other". We use "both" before a plural countable noun.

Both concepts seemed deep and right.


We use "both of" before "the", "your", "these", etc. + plural noun and we often leave out "of.

Both (of) choices involve costs.


Note: We cannot leave out "of" before the plural object pronouns: you, us, them.

Both of them have to earn their living.


We can use "both" after an object pronoun.

I consider them both very skilled workers.


b. "Either" / "neither" are used before a singular countable noun.

"Either" = "one or the other"; "neither" = "not one or not the other"

Either production involves costs.

Neither choice is justifiee.


"Either of '/"neither of" are used before your, these, the ,etc.+ a plural countable noun or before the plural object pronouns you, us, them.

Either of these producers makes goods and provides services that consumers use.

Neither of them could answer major economie questions.


Note: After "neither of we can use a singular or a plural verb.

Neither of the costs is / are counted in terms of money but also in ternis of resources used.

Neither of the resources used for the bridge is / are availablefor something else.


But : A singular verb is more common in a formai style.


c. We use "both ", "either", "neither" to link the ideas in these structures:

both... and...

either... or...

neither... nor...

This cost is counted both in terms of money and in terms of resources used.

The capital resources these people use include both tools and machines.

We can either buy a car_or spend our money for a stereo.

Neither land nor water belongs to consumer goods but are considered to be natural resources.


Exercise 1

Fill in the blanks. Complete the sentences using the following quantity pronouns (Some of them can be used twice.):


A any D plentyof G some (2) J (a) little

В afew E a lot of(2) H others/other К both... and

С neither (of) F either I both (of) L some other


  1. After graduation from high school_____young people choose to go to college:____want to get full-time jobs, _____ decide to obtain a technical job training.

  2. What are_____considerations in making a choice?

  3. You can't make a choice between two possible uses of your resources without_____opportunity cost.

  4. _____decision school graduates make affects the rest of their lives.

  5. I know that you've got_____money. Could you lend me_____?

  6. Young people have_____opportunities today to earn their living, but they don't always make the most of them.

  7. ____of us lias any chance for research in our new jobs.

  8. ____ the concepts of opportunity costs and tradeoffs are used to explain how the economy works.

  9. If a person has _____ choices then more than one opportunity cost exists.

  10. The capital resources these people use include____a variety of tools ____machines.

  11. If you spend_____time watching TV you cannot spend the same time at the library.


Exercise 2

Choose the correct pronoun and complete the sentence.


  1. People and societies don't have much / many natural resources and must be aware of ail the trade-offs.

  2. Every / each opportunity cost is the value of time, money, natural resources and labour.

  3. All / every people make choices about what they want most.

  4. We have got ail the / the whole information about the construction of this plant.

  5. Another / other natural resources are available and used by construction workers.

  6. Unfortunately, a few / few economie inodels help economists to analyse economie problems and solve them.

  7. Nothing / none of the decisions were correct and justified.

  8. Don’t you have little / a little money to lend me?

  9. There are hardly some / any students in your group who need financial help to attend college.

  10. One can't make a choice between two possible uses of resources with-out some/any opportunity cost.

  11. No / neither of ihese economie models fits our goals. Try to find a better one.

  12. The managers made quite a number of promises bet'ore the meeting, but haven't kept either/ kept none.

  13. The two workshops look very much alike but frankly speaking I don't Hke both of them / either.

  14. 1 have tclephoned Mr. Grant three limes this week and I reckon l've mentioned Mr. Macpherson's reference every / each time.


Exercise 3


CONTEXT


Task 1

Read the conversation between Mr Ward and his son Alan. In eight of the lines mere is one wrong word or word combination. Other lines, how-ever, are correct.

• If a line is correct, put a tick () in the space in the right-hand column.

• If there is a mistake in the line, use the correct word.


MrW:

I say, dear, sixteen is a crucial age. This is when every young man and girl have to decide whether to stay at school, to go on to a college, to look for a job, or to start a Youth Training Programme.

1 

2

3

4

A:

Well, that' s the thing! Our tutor says that every have to think about gaining employment in a job market which demands more and increasingly skilled workers.

5

6

7

MrW:

In my youth little young people studied for "A" and "AS"

8



level qualifications. I hear it is a more frequent practice nowadays.

9

10

A:

True enough. These are two-year courses in single subjects. Students will usually take either two nor three subjects which may be combined with one or two "AS" courses. These are offered by both schools and colleges.

11

12

13

14

MrW:

Yes, but on the other hand, if you need some advice, ask a School careers adviser. Some advisers teach much useful skills: e.g. Filling out a curriculum vitae, writing letters. applying for a job, because for many young people this is unchartered terri tory.

15

16

17

18

19

A:

Yes, but on the other hand, higher education is attractive, ton I have heard that the proportion of young people entering university and other advanced education is expected to reach 1 in 3 in the near future. But while attending college I’ll gel no income and no any practical job experience, and lose some time and a lot of inoney.

20

21

22

23

24

25

Mr W:

No way! Going to college means using time and monev now to gain greater advantages in the future. I know that any students on first degree and comparatively advanced courses receive both awards covering tuition and maintenance.

26

27

28

29

A:

How right that is! Most parents also contribute, but that depends on their income. They say students are granted some interest-free loans through the Student Loans Company. Besides, the Government guarantees a place on the Youth Training Programmes to every of us who is not in full-time education or in work.

30

31

32

33

34

35

MrW:

On balance, to a certain extent education is worth the expense, especially, if the objective is to gain greater advantages in the future.

36

37

38



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