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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ
по английскому языку для психологов
81.2 Анг. Печатается по решению
У.91 редакционно-издательского совета
Краснодарского университета МВД России
Рецензенты: Тхорик Владимир Ильич, доктор филологических наук, профессор
(Кубанский государственный университет)
Кулинская Светлана Валерьевна, кандидат филологических наук,
доцент (Краснодарский университет МВД России)
Составители: Мятченко Ирина Васильевна,
кандидат филологических наук, доцент,
зав. кафедрой русского и иностранных языков,
(Краснодарский университет МВД России)
Манина Татьяна Александровна,
ст. преподаватель русского и иностранных языков,
(Краснодарский университет МВД России)
Гончарова Людмила Викторовна,
преподаватель кафедры русского и иностранных языков,
(Краснодарский университет МВД России)
Учебное пособие по английскому языку для психологов / сост. И.В. Мятченко, Т.А. Манина, Л.В. Гончарова. - Краснодар: Краснодарский университет МВД России,2011.-89 с.
Учебное пособие написано в соответствии с государственным образовательным стандартом для курсантов, слушателей, студентов, обучающихся по специальности «Психология». Пособие может быть использовано для самостоятельной работы и подготовки к занятиям и включает в себя тексты для внеаудиторного чтения, грамматический материал, составление писем, оформление конверта.
ББК 81.2 Анг.
И.В. Мятченко, Т.А. Манина, Л.В. Гончарова, составление, 2011
©Краснодарский университет МВД России,2011
FOUNDERS OF PSYCHOLOGY
Gustav Fechner was born on April 1, 1801. His father, a village pastor, died early in Gustav's childhood, so he, his mother and brother went to live with their uncle. In 1817 at the age of 16 he went off to study medicine at the University of Leipzig. He received his doctor degree in 1822 at the age of 21. His interests were physics and math, so he made his living tutoring and translating. After writing a good paper on electricity in 1831, he was invited to become a professor of physics at Leipzig. He became friends with a lot of people, among them was Wilhelm Wundt, his interests directed to psychology.
Using the pseudonym Dr. Mises, he wrote many articles about medicine and philosophy. He moved his interests to spiritual perspective. He believed that all of nature was alive and capable of awareness of one degree or another. Even the planet earth itself, he thought, had a soul. He called this the day-view, and opposed it to the night-view of materialism.
He felt that our lives come in three stages — the fetal life, the ordinary life and the life after death. When we die our soul join with other souls as a part of the supreme soul. That led him to study psychophysics, which he defined as the study of the systematic relationships between physical events and mental events. In 1860 he published his famous book the Elements of Psychophysics.
Psychology is one of those disciplines which clearly bring out the importance of correct philosophical approach to the study of both general theoretical problems and concrete aspects of personality and interpersonal relations. Specialising at the interface between natural and social sciences and reaching out respectively into the province of natural psychology, psycho-physiology, etc., on the one hand, and social psychology, pedagogical psychology, etc., on the other, the science of the mind is highly illustrative of the beneficial influence of the teaching on the progress of science.
The 20th century is marked by a break of psychology with idealist and metaphysical philosophy. Modern scientific psychology rests on scientific philosophical notions, the conception of the mind as reflection of the objective world by the brain, as a property of highly organized matter. Psychology focuses on the role of the mind in man's practical activity and development.
Psychology has set itself to develop the scientific principles of investigation into its major problems. At present it can boast of its own subject-matter, its specific tasks and specific methods of research. Its material is based on psychological research centers, laboratories and educational institutions training personnel for research activities as well as of a number of journals and specialized publishing houses. International psychological congresses are held on a regular basis, psychologists form scientific associations and societies. The role of psychology as a leading science about man is universally recognized.
PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
The word "psyche" has a double meaning: it means a reflection of an objective world and a subjective innate world of an individual.
Psychological knowledge appeared when people recognized for the first time that each of them is different from other living beings. Development of psychological idea came through parallel forming of basic concepts of understanding as a whole.
Earlier philosophical learning also concerned with psychological aspects which were discussed either in terms of idealism or in terms of materialism. Ancient materialists minded philosophers such as Democrit, Epicur and so on understood man's soul as a variety of matter, as a body formed from the smallest and the most moving atoms. But the theory of idealistic philosopher Platon perceived man's spirit as something divine and different from body.
However psychological knowledge developed not only in the field of philosophy. Natural science disciplines saved up much information about human body: his anatomy, physiology and biochemist. At the same time, any contradictions became more evident in the area of philosophy and natural science, psychological knowledge about a person. Such situation required its solution. The solution of this problem was possible only by determination of psychology as a particular science possessing its methods and facilities.
The most important contribution to this matter was made by W. Wundt who opened the first formal psychological laboratory in 1879 in Germany, in Leipzig University.
At the end of the XIX-th century active position of psychological idea resulted in development of various scientific approaches, such as structuralism, fundamentalism, behaviorism and freudism.
As a whole world psychology developed rapidly in different perspectives. The most present interest became both researching person and social adaptation in psychological science.
Modern psychology is a wide sphere of knowledge including a number of particular disciplines and scientific approaches. Animal psychology studies specific psyche of animal. Child psychology learns developing of consciousness, activity of growing child, psychic processes, condition of development, etc. Social psychology examines social psychological activity of an individual, his interrelations with other people, groups, psychological combinations (influence of mass media and so on). Pedagogical psychology studies person's development in the process of learning and fostering. There are several branches of psychology, analyzing psychological problems of human activity. Labour psychology investigates psychological features of human labour activity and his labour skills.
Engineering psychology investigates interrelations between a person and modern techniques, design creation and exploitation of automatic systems.
DR. SIGMUND FREUD'S MUSEUM IN LONDON
The text below is taken from the Freud's museum in London, It is a guide for school students (pupils). Does it tell the most important things about Sigmund Freud? Do you think it is good written for children? Is it suitable for adults?
Sigmund Freud was a doctor who lived in Vienna, the capital of Austria, from 1859 until 1938. While he was still at university Freud decided to specialize in neurology, the study and treatment of the brain and the nervous system. In 1885, just before he got married, he obtained a grant to go to Paris to see the famous neurologist Jean Martin Charcot.
Charcot worked with men and women who suffered from hysteria. At first sight they appeared to be blind, or are paralysed in a part of their body, or cannot stop coughing, or have some other physical symptom. But Charcot used hypnosis to show that the real problem was a mental one — under hypnosis he could get them to walk or see. Freud realised from this demonstration the power that the mind could have over the body, and he came back from Paris determined to make a name for himself in this new field of study.
Gradually more and more patients came to si,e Freud, and with each patient he tried to learn something new about his work. He also tried to analyse himself. He realized that some of the ideas that affect people are unconscious — we do not know about them even though they are in our own minds. Freud said that this means that people may do things without knowing the real reason why they are doing it.
He also showed that the unconscious is full of memories and ideas from early childhood, but they are «repressed» and made unconscious because they are things we don't want to think about, or they are forbidden. Freud believed in an idea which is still often heard today, that «the child is father to the adult», and because of his views many adults today think about children in a different way to before.
Freud also showed that sometimes the repressed ideas from childhood could show themselves in dreams or nightmares, and one of his most famous books was called The Interpretation Of Dreams. The first dream Freud interpreted was when he was on holiday at a place called «Bellvue».
Freud says that dreams are about all the things we wish for. But rather than just wishing for something, the dream shows us a picture as if the wish has come true. So instead of thinking «I wish I had an ice-cream», a dream shows you actually eating the ice-cream!
But sometimes you are not allowed to have an ice-cream. Freud said that the wish is often forbidden, so it becomes unconscious and repressed. So part of you wants to make the wish come true and part of you wants to stop the wish. Because of this the wish is disguised, which means that the dream has to be interpreted before it makes sense. That's why Freud called his book The Interpretation of Dreams.
One of the most important things Freud discovered was what he called «The Oedipus complex», The Oedipus story was a Greek myth about a man who killed his father, the king, and married his mother. In the story Oedipus also had to solve the «riddle of the Sphinx», by answering the three questions the Sphinx asked him.
Freud thought that all little boys of 4 or 5 years old were like Oedipus in the story. When they say «I wish I could have mummy all to myself and that daddy was gone away» they are wanting to be just like Oedipus. But this wish cannot be granted — no one can have their mummy all to themselves — so the child has to learn to grow up and accept his disappointment. It was when his own father died that Freud began the study of dreams which led him to discover the Oedipus complex.
Gradually Freud developed the theory of Psychoanalysis and the method of helping people he called free association. With free association Freud simply asked his patients to lie on the couch and say anything that came into their heads. He tried to interpret what they said by relating it to the repressed ideas and wishes in the unconscious. In this way he hoped that things which were unconscious would gradually become conscious, so that the patient would have more control over them and they would not be able to affect him or her so much.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was born May 6, 1856, in a small town Freiberg. His father was a wool merchant (торговец шерстью) with a keen mind (с тонким умом) and a good sense of humor. His mother was a lively woman, her husband's second wife and 20 years younger. She was 21 years old when she gave birth to her first son, Sigmund. Sigmund had two older half-brothers and six younger siblings (братьев и сестер). When he was four or five the family moved to Vienna, where he lived most of his life.
A brilliant child, always at the head of his class, he went to medical school, where he became involved in research under the direction of a physiology professor Ernst Brucke. Brucke believed in reductionism: «No other forces than the common physical-chemical ones are active within the organism.»
Freud concentrated on neurophysiology, but only a limited number of positions at the university were available. Brucke helped him to get a grant to study, first with the great psychiatrist Charcot in Paris, then with Bernheim. Both these gentlemen were investigating the use of hypnosis with hysterics.
After spending a short time as a neurologist and director of a children's ward (детское отделение) in Berlin, he came back to Vienna, married his patient fiancee (невеста) Martha Bernays, and set up a practice in neuropsychiatry, with the help of Joseph Breuer.
Freud's books and lectures brought him both fame and ostracism (остракизм, гонения) from the traditional medical community. He collected around him a number of very bright students who became the core (ядро) of the psychoanalytic movement. Unfortunately, Freud rejected people who did not totally agree with him. Some separated from him on friendly terms; others did not, and continued researd to found competing schools of thought.
Freud emigrated to England just before World War II when Vienna became an increasing dangerous place for Jews, especially ones as famous as Freud. Not long afterward, he died of the cancer of the mouth and jaw (челюсть) that he had suffered from for the last 20 years of his life.
Binet, Alfred (1857-1911), French psychologist known for his achievement in developing a standard intelligence test.
Binet was born on July 11, 1857, in Nice. He was educated at the Sorbonne, where he studied law. However, he decided to continue his studies in medicine and psychology. In 1889, at the Sorbonne, he helped to found the first psychological research laboratory in France. As director of the laboratory, Binet tried to develop experimental techniques to measure intelligence and reasoning ability. In 1895, he founded the first French psychological journal, L'Annйe Psychologique (The Psychological Year), and used it to publish the results of his research studies.
Binet's most important work was in intelligence testing. With his colleague, psychologist Theodore Simon, he developed a test to measure the mental ability of children. The Binet-Simon Scale first appeared in 1905. It was made up of problems designed to measure general intelligence, and items were graded according to age level. The child's score, based on the number of correct answers, showed the child's mental age.
Binet died in Paris on October 18, 1911. His work on intelligence measurement remained important among psychologists in other countries. The Stanford-Binet Scale, an adaptation of Binet's original test, was widely used for many years in the United States, where great importance was paid to intelligence testing.
Biological changes might have more impact due to their social stimulus value, through what we call "mediated effects". These effects relate primarily to the visible physical changes of puberty and to their social and psychological stimulus value. Early maturation in girls might have different effects depending on parental and individual attitudes about pubertal change and on such other factors as the girl's gender identity and the kinds of athletic and other activities she prefers."
She saw a factor for adaptation to biological changes as prior to vulnerability (уязвимость), since a child who has developed well up to puberty is probably better able to deal with changes than is one who has difficulties.
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