Казанский (приволжский) федеральный университет институт языка Кафедра английского языка




НазваниеКазанский (приволжский) федеральный университет институт языка Кафедра английского языка
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ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ

ПО РАБОТЕ СО СПЕЦТЕКСТОМ




ESP Analysis


Phase I – Pre-reading


Phase II – While-reading


Phase III – Post-reading




Phase I – Pre-reading

Source

  • the learner

Goals

  • to introduce the topic and arouse learners’ interest in it

  • to motivate learners by giving them a realistic purpose for their reading

Activities

  • guessing

  • predicting




  • terms definition



Phase II – While-reading


Source

  • the text

Goals

  • to understand the purpose

  • to understand the topic

  • to understand the gist

Activities

  • skimming reading







Source

    • the text

Goals

  • to understand key facts




  • to understand details




  • to discuss special terms



Activities

  • to analyze the problem and its

significance

  • scanning reading



Phase III – Post-reading


Source

  • the learner

Goals

  • consolidating knowledge

  • awareness of content structure

  • awareness of specialist vocabulary

Activities



  • problem solving

  • class discussion

  • free transfer

  • giving a presentation on the topic



Learners’ Perspective on the Problem

Skills Development



Reading and Speaking


Pre-reading task


  1. Read the headline of the text and try to explain the meaning of these words “Management”, “Sociological Perspective” and “Functional Perspective”.

  2. Complete the table “Things I know about the topic“ (the left part – “Before reading”).




Things I know about the topic

Before reading

After reading




  1. Guess the topic and the gist of the text.

  2. Think of the words and ideas you associate with “Management”, “Sociology”, and rank them in the order of importance.

  3. Bring to light common elements of these two concepts: “Management” and “Sociology”.

  4. Write down the words related to the topic.

  5. Predict how the text begins (two sentences).



R
eading



Figure 1. An Organizational Chart


Management


The Sociological Perspective




For many, the word management creates an image of a certain group of individuals in an organization. From this point of view, there are two kinds of organization members: managers and everybody else. The sociological perspective, thus, defines management as the group of organization members that occupies the social position responsible for making sure that an organization achieves its mission (its “reason for being”). As you might expect, these people are called managers. The second group of organization members – “everybody else” – consists of workers, employees, laborers, troops, support staff, and technical analysts – nonmanagers. An organizational chart, such as that shown in Figure 1, is a schematic drawing of the positions within an organization. It can be used to distinguish among these social positions. Notice that, in Figure 1, the management group spans several different levels and units (departments, sections, and divisions) in the organizational hierarchy (that is, its managerial levels of authority and responsibility).

Other factors also distinguish managers from nonmanagers. Managers generally control more power, influence, rewards, status, and responsibility than do nonmanagers. The two groups also have different organizational roles to fill. Managers are often hired, fired, promoted and demoted according to whether their organization achieves its objectives: sells enough airline tickets, earns enough profits, serves enough hamburgers, and so on. Managers’ primary responsibilities are to design, to pursue, and to achieve organizational objectives by working with and through the nonmanagers. Nonmanagers are usually hired to perform specific technical tasks, such as operating machinery, maintaining clerical records, flipping hamburgers, teaching courses, or performing surgery. Their rewards usually are closely tied to how well they apply their technical skills.


The Process Perspective


One of the oldest and most widely adopted definitions of management is the “art of getting things done through people”. Mary Parker Follett, a pioneer in the study of management, described it as an activity concerned with the orchestration of people, work, and systems in the pursuit of organizational goals. The way in which managers accomplish this is the basis for the process perspective. Here the process perspective is adopted to examine the roles, activities, and processes that managers engage in as they plan, organize, direct, and control their organization.

Managing an organization from the process perspective is like conducting a symphony orchestra. An orchestra’s overall organizational goal is to play each piece of music flawlessly. The conductor is the orchestra’s manager, coaxing the best performance possible from symphony members and coordinating all of the various sections. The conductor’s management role is very different from the technical role of individual flutists, clarinetists, violinists, and other musicians. Without the musicians, there would be no orchestra, but without the conductor, the musicians could not coordinate their playing into a harmonious performance. It is the role of every manager to orchestrate organizational effectiveness through the management process.

In 1916, French industrialist Henri Fayol described a “functional approach to management” and suggested that all managers perform similar activities. Whether they are top-level or low-level managers, whether their organization is as small as a hair stylist’s shop or as large as the U.S. government, whether they manage a manufacturing organization or health care institution, whether they are in accounting or marketing, all managers must execute a universal set of management processes. Fayol’s universal set of management functions included planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.

After Fayol, several theorists, such as Chester Barnard, Ralph C. Davis, and Lyndall Urwick, revised the idea of universal management functions (see Table 1.). The result is a useful process definition that is popular today. It modifies Fayol’s categories into four universal management functions: planning, organizing (which includes Fayol’s coordinating activities), directing (which includes Fayol’s commanding activities), and controlling.

The planning function involves establishing organizational goals and defining the methods by which they are to be attained. The organizing function involves designing, structuring, and coordinating the components of an organization to meet organizational goals. The directing function involves managing interpersonal activities, leading and motivating employees so that they will effectively and efficiently accomplish the tasks necessary to realize organizational goals. The controlling function involves monitoring both the behavior of organization members and the effectiveness of the organization itself, determining whether plans are achieving organizational goals, and taking corrective actions as needed.

Managers use all four functions when applying an organization’s resources to achieve its goals.


Table 1. The Range of Managerial Activities


Planning

Representing

Staffing

Organizing

Activating

Motivating

Commanding

Administering

Innovating

Coordinating
Investigating

Decision-making

Controlling

Communicating

Evaluating

Directing

Securing efforts




Leading

Formulating purposes





While-reading task (skimming reading)


  1. Read the text quickly to get the main ideas.

  2. Get the author’s overall message.

  3. Develop your own ideas how the text is organized.

  4. Work in groups. Discuss the True/False statements.

True or False Statements

Which are True? Which are False? Why?


  1. This text deals with Marketing.

  2. The gist of the text is Financial Management.

  3. The term “Management” creates an image of individuals.

  4. The term “Management” means the group of managers only.

  5. The group of organization members consists of both managers and nonmanagers.

  6. Controlling functions are done by nonmanagerial group.

  7. Universal management functions are investigating, motivating and coordinating.

  8. Managerial and nonmanagerial groups are only at one level.

  9. It’s managers’ function to achieve organizational goals.

  10. The performance of the specific technical tasks is both managerial and nonmanagerial responsibilities.


While-reading task (scanning reading)


  1. Read the text more carefully to understand details.

  2. Underline special terms and explain their meaning.

  3. Work in groups. Suggest a suitable headline for your section (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

  4. Tell the other sub-group members about three main points from your section.

  5. Answer the comprehension questions.


Comprehension Questions

Answer the Questions:


  1. How do you call organization members?

  2. Why are these words “Sociological perspective” and “Management” used together?

  3. What factors distinguish managers from nonmanagers?

  4. Why is a manager’s activity compared with the one of an orchestra’s conductor?

  5. What are the main management functions?

  6. Look at the table and compare the range of managerial activities with the main universal management functions. Give your own idea.



Here are the answers, write down the questions


  1. These are Managers and Nonmanagers.

  2. Management means a certain group of individuals.

  3. The second group consists of everybody else.

  4. These people are called managers.

  5. Managers’ responsibilities are to design, to pursue and to achieve organizational goals.


Issues for Review and Discussion


  1. Describe the management process.

  2. Describe the characteristics of an organization.

  3. List and define four managerial functions and explain how they are interrelated.

  4. Explain the concept of universalism of management.

  5. Speak of a company you know. (process perspective and social perspective).


Post-reading task


  1. Complete the table “Things I know about the topic” (the right part – “After reading”).




Things I know about the topic

Before reading

After reading




  1. P
    resent the text as a scheme display, or use this to help you.


3. Prepare and give a presentation on Management. Focus on social and functional (process) approaches. Use the “classic” presentation structure to help you.


Classic” presentation structure




Introduction



I’ d like to talk today about…






Outline



I’ve divided my talk into…




Question



If you have any questions, please…





Part 1



Let’s start with …

So that covers …





Part 2



That brings me to …

Let’s leave that there …



Part 3/4 etc


… and turn to …





Summary


To sum up …





Conclusion


In conclusion …

What Makes a Good Presentation

What is the point?




Communication Skills

Overall

  • Awareness of your audience (Who are they? What are their needs or interests? What do they expect from you?)

  • Clear objectives (to inform, persuade, welcome etc.)




System

  • Planning – have a clear structure and a sense of timing.

  • Organization – have clear connections between the different parts or ideas.

  • Information – make sure what you say is interesting and relevant to your audience.

  • Impact – make sure you have a strong introduction and conclusion.




Delivery

  • Clear, simple, and fluent.

  • Use of natural spoken language.

  • Use of pauses for emphasis.




Body language

  • Use of strong, clear gestures for emphasis.

  • Good eye contact with the audience.

  • Positive, confident, and relaxed manner.

  • No distracting gestures.




Visual aids

  • Clear and simple messages.

  • Efficient, professional use of equipment.



Language focus – Introducing yourself and your talk

Greeting, name, position

Good morning. My name’s ….

I’m the new Finance Manager.

Good morning. Let me start by saying just a few words about my own background.

Title / Subject

I’d like to talk (to you) today about ….


I’m going to

present the recent ….

explain our position on ….

brief you on ….

inform you about ….

describe ….





The

subject

focus of my

topic

talk

presentation

paper (academic)

speech (usually to public audience)

Purpose / Objective

We are here today to

decide…

agree…

learn about…




The purpose of this talk is to

update you on ….

put you in the picture about ….

give the background to ….




The talk is designed to

act as a springboard for discussion.

start the ball rolling.

Length

I’ll only take … minutes of your time.

I plan to be brief.

This should only last … minutes.

Outline / Main parts

I have divided my presentation into four parts/sections. They are ….

The subject can be looked at under the following headings: ….

We can break this area down into the following fields:

Firstly / First of all ….

Secondly / then / next ….

Thirdly / and then we come to ….

Finally / lastly / last of all …

Questions

I would be glad to answer any questions at the end of my talk.

If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt.

Please interrupt me if there is something which needs clarifying. Otherwise, there’ll be time for discussion at the end.

Reference to the audience

I can see many of you are ….

You all look as though you have heard this before.

As I am sure you know ….

You may remember ….

I’m sure we would all agree ….

Language focus – Linking ideas

Sequencing /Ordering firstly … secondly … thirdly

then … next … finally/lastly …

let’s start with …

let’s move/go on to …

now we come to …

that brings us to …

let’s leave that …

that covers …

let’s get back to …

Giving reasons/causes

therefore

so

as a result

that’s why

Contrasting

but

however

Comparing

similarly

in the same way

Contradicting

in fact

actually

Summarizing

to sum up

in brief

in short

Concluding

in conclusion

to conclude

Highlighting

in particular

especially

Digressing

by the way

in passing

Giving examples

for example

for instance

such as

Generalizing

usually

generally

as a rule



Language focus – Endings

Signalling the end

That brings me to the end of my presentation.

That completes my presentation.

Before I stop / finish, let me just say ….

That covers all I wanted to say today.

Summarizing

Let me just run over the key points again.

I’ll briefly summarize the main issues.

To sum up.

Briefly ….

Concluding

As you can see, there are some very good reasons ….

In conclusion ….

I’d like to leave you with the following thought / idea.

Recommending

So, I would suggest that we ….

I’d like to propose (more formal).

In my opinion, the only way forward is ….

Closing

Thank you for your attention.

Thank you for listening.

I hope you will have gained an insight into ….

Inviting questions

I’d be glad to try and answer any questions.

So, let’s throw it open to questions. Any questions?
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