Казанский (приволжский) федеральный университет институт языка Кафедра английского языка

НазваниеКазанский (приволжский) федеральный университет институт языка Кафедра английского языка
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Translation of Russian Terms


(First) degree is usually the most appropriate translation, since a Russian диплом is awarded after five years' specialised study at an institution of higher education. The use of diploma implies a shorter course, or one of a lower academic standard.

First should be included only when it is necessary to dis­tinguish this degree (=диплом) from a higher degree (ученая степень).

I've only got a first degree.

Дипломная работа is difficult to translate into English, because there is nothing of this kind in most higher educational establishments in England. In order to graduate, students only have to pass the necessary examinations. In some institutions, however, mainly newer ones, students also have to write a dissertation, that is, a sort of extended essay based on some independent study or investigation, and this practice seems to be spreading. Dissertation could therefore be used as a translation of дипломная работа, bearing in mind that it exists only in some English institutions. The SOED (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary) defines dissertation as "a discourse, a spoken or written treatment of a subject at length". In American English, however, dissertation is a work submitted for a higher degree (BrE thesis). This fact, and the possible confusion with the Russian диссертация, make dissertation a far from ideal translation of дипломная работа.

The only other solution seems to be some descriptive expression with graduation, for example, graduation essay/ paper/dissertation.

Дипломный пpоект can be translated as graduation project. Remember, however, that this is not a set expression and that project has a wider use in modern English.

Зaщита дипломной работы/дипломного проекта

Even in those institutions where students write a dissertation there is no occasion corresponding to the Russian защита. The dissertation is simply marked by the examiner(s) together with the student's examination papers.

One possibility is to use the expression oral (examination) or viva, as in the case of theses but this has various disadvantages. Firstly, an oral examination (or viva) is not conducted like a защита. Secondly, it is not clear how to specify the idea of a first degree. Graduation/final oral (examination) or viva is possible, but this does not suggest the discussion of a dissertation or paper. Moreover, it would be better to keep the expression graduation/final oral (examination) as a translation of the oral part of the государственный экзамен.

In view of all these complications, there seems to be no good alternative to the literal translation defense of one's dissertation or graduation paper/project. Remember, however, that this will not be clear to English people without an explanation.

окончить (университет/институт)

Graduate (from a university/college) can generally be used as a translation in formal or semi-formal style. In non-formal style, however, some other version is more appropriate, for example, to take one's degree.

In cases where the fact of having passed the examinations, etc. is not the central idea, English people often use the verb to be with at, or to go with to.

was at

He went to London University.

Here it is assumed that he graduated.

(ученая) степень

Higher degree is the best translation.

Cтепень кандидата наук and кандидат наук are as a rule best translated literally as: degree of candidate of sciences or candidate's degree (less formal) and candidate of sciences.

Since these terms do not exist in English, and the word candidate has a more general meaning (that of a person applying for a job or position, or taking an examination), it will be necessary in many cases to explain to English people that a Russian candidate's degree is approximately equiva­lent to an English PhD (or doctorate). It may be justified in some cases, for example, when talking to English or American visitors, to use the word doctorate and doctor for convenience. However, if there are people present with the degree of доктор наук, such use will obscure the difference between the two Russian degrees.

When using the literal translation candidate of sciences, it may be necessary to explain also that science does not refer to the sciences in the modern English sense.

Cтепень доктора наук and доктор наук can be translated as: degree of doctor or doctorate and doctor (of sciences). However, it should be explained that this is not the same as an English or American doctorate, but that it is a more advanced degree, awarded for a thesis.

When translating the names of particular degrees, it seems on the whole preferable to omit the word science, although it is not necessarily incorrect to include it.

кандидат/доктор филологических наук - candidate / doctor of philology

The literal translation philology is preferable here to arts or any of the other words discussed in connection with the translation of филологический факультет. Neither candidate/doctor of arts nor candidate/doctor of languages and literature are English terms, and in any case the words candidate and doctor are themselves literal translations here. However, candidate/doctor of philology will mean nothing to an English person unfamiliar with the Russian system unless some explanation is given.

кандидат / доктор философских наук — candidate / doctor of philosophy

It may be necessary to explain that doctor of philosophy is not the same as the English degree of that name.

кандидат / доктор психологических наук — candid ate / doctor of psychology

кандидат / доктор педагогических наук— candidate/doctor of education

Pedagogical science or pedagogics is possible, although very learned, and not so easily understood.

кандидат / доктор экономических наук — candidate/doctor of economics

кандидат / доктор юридических наук — candidate/doctor of law

The names of the other degrees can be translated in a similar way.


The usual British English equivalent is thesis, which is applied to both the Master's degree and the doctorate. Dissertation is used either as a general term, to denote any extended written treatment of a subject, or more specifically, to denote something of a lower academic standard than a thesis, for example, what students write for graduation in some institutions.

In American English, however, dissertation is used for a doctorate, whereas thesis denotes something of a lower standard, for example, for a Master's degree.

защита диссертации, защищать диссертацию

It should be noted that there is nothing of this kind in England, although the oral (examination) or viva fulfills basically the same function. Defend and defense can be used as translations, so long as one bears in mind that they are not real equivalents. In some cases one can avoid the difficulty by re-phrasing the sentence.

В 2001 году он защитил кандидатскую/докторскую


In 2001 he was awarded his candidate's/doctor's degree.


The most detailed definition of this word is given by Webster: "studious inquiry or examination, esp. investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws."

In higher educational establishments research is often contrasted with teaching.

a. The job combines teaching and research.

b. He spent so much time on teaching that there was not much left for research.

Research can be translated as исследование, (научно-) исследовательская работа, научная работа or наука, depending on the context.

The word research is usually uncountable, as in the examples given above. A particular investigation is not called a research but a piece of research (or an investigation/study). Sometimes, however, research is used countably in the plural.

a. His researches produced some interesting results.

Research may also be used as a verb, often into.

b. He is researching into the origin of language

problem of air pollution.

More often, however, the expressions to do research or to be engaged in research are used in this sense (see below).

The prepositions on, in and into are used with the noun research, as follows.

On is used with a more or less specific subject.

c. I'm doing research on place names / Shelley / the history of the trade union movement.

In is used with the field of investigation.

d. He is famous for his research in linguistics / history / microbiology.

Into occurs less often, mainly with words such as problem, cause, relation, origin.

e. Recent research into the causes of heart disease has led

to some important discoveries.

Research is used in the following expressions: to do research (on/in/into smth.)

a. He's doing research on programmed learning.

b. Very little research has been done in this field.

To do research with no adverbial modifier specifying the sub­ject or field often means to be a postgraduate student, or, as this is also called, a research student.

c. Students who get first-class degrees are usually given the

opportunity to (stay on and/to) do research.

d. What are you going to do next year?

I've applied to do research but I won't know whether I’ve been

accepted or not until the end of the month.

to be engaged in research (on/in/into smth.)

This has the same meaning as to do research but is confined to formal style and is not used in the sense of to be a research student.

e. At the moment Professor Harris is engaged on (important)

research on juvenile delinquency.

to carry out research (on/in/into smth.)

This is sometimes used as an alternative to to be engaged in research. It is also formal style.

research work

This is sometimes used in such sentences as:

f. He wants to devote more time to his research work.

However, research alone is quite enough in such cases.

research worker

This means someone doing research, usually full-time, not in combination with teaching.

Researcher is used in the sense of anyone doing research, whether a full-time research worker or, for example, a university teacher who also does research.

Research student—a postgraduate, that is, someone doing research under the direction of a supervisor (AmE advisor)— “(научный) руководитель”.

research fellow/fellowship

A research fellow is a postgraduate who has been awarded a research fellowship, meaning a special scholarship to do research for a certain period. Research fellows often do some teaching as well.

Research subject / topic—a subject on which one is doing research, often one for a thesis.

research establishment / organization / institute, etc.

The field of research can be specified in one of the following ways:

scientific research—in the natural sciences

medical / linguistic / historical / educational research, etc.

industrial research—research directly for industry, in contrast to academic research in a university or similar institution.

research establishments

Research establishment and research organisation are general terms. Particular establishments or organisations are called by one of the following names:

research institute—the most common

The Grasslands Research Institute

for Soil Research

The Institute of Cancer Research

of Historical Research

research centre

The Clinical Research Centre

research station

The Forest Research Station

(research) unit

The Unit of Plant Physiology

Unit tends to imply a smaller section within some larger

(research) laboratory

The Road Research Laboratory

Government research establishments are generally grouped together in research associations, each governed by a research council.

The Agricultural/Medical Research Council

Research worker, as mentioned above, is a general term. Research workers at British universities are divided into two grades, usually called research associates and senior research associates. Some institutions use assistant instead of associate: research assistant and senior research assistant. In institutions which have both research associates and research assistants, research associates are more senior.

Another variation, used mainly in government research establishments for science and technology, is experimental officer and senior experimental officer.

When stating the profession of someone doing full-time research in the natural sciences, one can use the expressions research scientist, or the more specific research biologist/chemist/physicist.

He's a research scientist

biologist / chemist / physicist.

There are no generally-used equivalents for the humanities.


When наука refers only to the natural sciences, the word science can be used without ambiguity. Science is also used when the particular branch is specified, for example:

естественные науки—natural science or the natural sciences

точные науки — the exact sciences

биологические / физические / химические науки — biological / physical/chemical science or the biological / physical / chemical sciences

математические науки — mathematical science or the mathematical sciences

медицинские науки — medical science

общественные науки — social science or the social sciences

We also speak of linguistic science.

Not all науки can be translated in this way. We do not usually speak of economic science, historical science, geographical science, philosophical science, philological science, psychological science, pedagogical science, although we may say, for example: the science of economics/history, etc. in the sense of a systematic study based on facts. The subjects listed above are usually referred to simply as economics, history, geography, philosophy, philology, psychology, education.

The branch of наука may be specified in other ways, not only by an adjective placed before the word itself, and here also science may be used as a translation.

a. Лингвистика – наука о языке.

Linguistics is the science of language.

b. Социология –относительно молодая наука.

Sociology is a relatively young science.

When наука is used in a general sense, as in the expressions:

c. заниматься наукой e. наука и жизнь

d. посвятить себя науке f. отрасль науки

the question of translation is more complex, because there is no corresponding general term in modern English. Science has acquired a narrower application, and no other word has taken1 its place as a general term. Therefore the translation of наука depends on the aspect expressed in the given situation, the usual possibilities being research, scholarship, learning and knowledge.

Research is the most appropriate when we mean the carrying out of systematic investigations in some field. It is the best translation in such cases as (c) and (d) above.

c. to do research or to be engaged in research

d. to devote oneself to research

Academic work is sometimes used in such cases, but this is less exact as a translation of наука, because it often includes not only research but teaching in a higher educational establishment.

Scholarship can be used to denote research, especially in the arts, or humanities, and could therefore replace research in example (d) if the situation is appropriate.

Learning is a possible translation in examples (e) and (f).

e. learning and life

This is by no means an ideal translation, since learning tends to refer mainly to arts subjects when used in this way.

However, it may be taken here in its general, verbal sense, and in any case it is less ambiguous than science.

f. branch of learning.

Knowledge could be used instead of learning in (f). It also has the same meaning as наука in the sentence A doctoral thesis must be an original contribution to knowledge.

Академия наук can be translated literally as Academy of Sciences, since this is accepted as a loan translation for something which does not exist in Britain. In Britain a similar function is fulfilled by the various learned societies, such as the Royal Society, for natural scientists, and being a member of a learned society is comparable to being a member of the Academy of Sciences.

Although the term academy of sciences is an international one, it is doubtful whether it would be correctly understood by the average English person, and an explanation may be necessary in some cases.

Кандидат/доктор наук are also translated literally in most cases, as candidate/doctor of sciences.


Scientific can be used in a general sense only in certain cases such as:

method - научный метод

scientific approach - научный подход

principles - научные принципы

It's unscientific – это ненаучно.

Even here, however, the word scholarly is preferred by some people, especially with reference to the arts.

In other cases scientific usually has a narrower application than научный, and such expressions as scientific work / society / article / conference refer only to the natural sciences. Moreover, scientific in such cases does not necessarily imply research; it may mean simply "relating to the natural sciences", in contrast to the arts.

We therefore need a different word for научный in such cases. As with наука, research is sometimes the best translation.

научная работа — research (work)

научный работник — research worker or researcher

старший / младший научный сотрудник – senior / junior research associate

научно-исследовательский институт – research institute.

Scholarly work is used by some people in formal style in the sense of research (work).

Learned is a more appropriate translation of научный in the following expressions:

научное общество — learned society.

However, this is not appropriate for a student society.

Cтуденческое научное общество is best translated as students’ research society (although there are no such societies in England, students’ societies being mainly recreational).

научный труд — learned work

Note that work here is used countably, in contrast to its uncountable use in research/scholarly work.

научный журнал— (learned) journal

научная статья — learned article

научный язык — learned/academic language

научное слово — learned word

Except for the first two expressions, learned here tends to refer mainly to arts subjects. Scientific can be used instead with reference to the natural sciences, but, as stated above, the resulting expressions will not necessarily imply investi­gation.

In the following cases the word научный need not be translated separately, because that concept is expressed by English noun.

научный доклад — paper

научный журнал — journal

A journal is usually, although not always, learned. Less serious publications are generally called magazines.

научный руководитель — supervisor

However, supervisor is understood in this sense only within the context of higher education and research.


Unfortunately, there is no English word which applies equally to all branches of knowledge, and the word ученый must therefore be translated in different ways, depending on the context.

Scientist can be used with reference to the natural sciences. However, it must be remembered that a scientist is not necessarily engaged in research.

Scholar is often the best translation with reference to the arts.

Sometimes the combined expression scientists and scholars is used with general reference. This awkward phrase indicates the need for a general term which the language has not yet produced.

Researcher is sometimes used to denote anyone who carries out research, in any field.

Academic (as a noun) can be used in some cases. Although it is not an exact equivalent, it has the advantage of referring equally to the arts and the sciences.



Lungua – Cultural Barriers of E-mail Communications

Our investigation is both theoretical and practical and is devoted to the study of a particular kind of communication, namely e-mail communication of representatives of different lingual-cultures in English who are not native speakers.

The necessity of searching efficient strategies of achieving communicative success through e-mail communication, overcoming lingual-cultural barriers, inadequate study of factors leading to communicative failures preventing successful intercultural communication determine the motivation for the study.

For achieving the maximum efficiency of communicative interaction it is necessary to find out the most optimal linguistic forms of realization of communicative intentions of interlocutors and formulate common rules of e-mail communication for representatives of different lingua-cultures. This statement determines the aim of our exploration to bring to light and describe the reasons of communicative failures of e-mail communication of non-native speakers of different lingua-cultures.

The aim of our study determines the research questions of our investigation:

  • to analyze the body of English computer texts received from representatives of different lingua-cultures whose native language is not English

  • to find out and describe peculiarities of the process of e-mail communication of representatives of different lingua-cultures and its result - e-mail communication

  • to determine and systematize the reasons of communicative failures of representatives of different lingua-cultures through e-mail communication

  • to work out the strategy and determine the means leading to the minimum of communicative failures typical for representatives of different lingua-cultures through e-mail communication.

The object of our study is e-mail communication as the contemporary efficient means of communication of representatives of different lingua-cultures.

The subject of our investigation is the body of texts of e-mail English messages as meditators in professional communication of representatives of different lingua-cultures for whom English is not a native language.

We have come up with a hypothesis which can explain why a successful e-mail communication of representatives of different lingua-cultures is determined by the choice of linguistic means and their speech shape, keeping strictly to the common communicative strategies by all participants of the process of communication.

The original contribution of our exploration lies in the fact that a new empirical material – the body of anglo-lingual e-mail messages that are the result of e-mail communications of representatives of two cultural communities for whom the language of communication is not native was analyzed.

Then there were found out the most typical reasons of unsuccessful e-mail communication and were worked out the strategies of increasing efficient e-mail interculturalcommunication.

The e-mail communication as one of a new and modern efficient means of communication is explored in details.

In our exploration we used different methods: theoretical analysis of integrative type, control of the process of correspondence of representatives of different lungua-cultures, descriptive and comparative methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis of data, comparative analysis on the basis of discourse analysis of e-mail texts S. Hering adapted to the conditions of our exploration, the method of modeling of the process of successful e-mail communication.

The methodological base of our investigation is the basic statements of the general linguistics (B. Phon Gumboldt, L. Vitgenshtein etc.), the theory of speech activity and communication (A.N. Leontiev, A.A. Leontiev etc.), the scholars of e-mail discourse and intercultural communication (E.A. Galichkina, D.B. Gudkov etc.).

The theoretical significance of our study consists in the further development of the statements of the theory of discourse, namely e-mail discourse, bringing to light typical characteristics of lingual and cognitive consciousness of communicators of different lingua-cultures; in describing e-mail communications within the theory of intercultural communication; in considering the phenomenon of interrelation of the language and culture within a new type of communication - e-mail communication.

The practical significance of our exploration lies in the fact that the basic difficulties through e-mail communication of communicators of different lingua-cultures were brought up to light and then systematized. Besides there were worked out the strategies of successful communication and the ways of correction of possible communicative failures. The results of the study can be used in lingua-didactics in teaching intercultural communication, business correspondence, in forming the policy of communication in international organizations, in arranging business negotiations. The purposeful and timely using intercultural and innovative technologies will promote the efficient interaction of personnel in international companies.

Implementations. General statements and obtained results were reported at different conferences. Practical recommendations on overcoming communicative barriers in the conditions of intercultural communication were included into the instruction on the work with foreign representatives of Air Bridge Cargo Company.

The Role of Cognitive Factors in Recognizing Emotional States

The topic of our exploration is The Role of Cognitive Factors in Recognizing Emotional States.

The Relevance of the topic. This problem is in the focus of attention of many scientists, who work in the field of Philosophy and Psychology. In recent years a considerable amount of valuable works has been done in this field. Today we can mention three tendencies in investigating this subject. The first one is focused on the functions of expression, the second - is based on the idea that people are able to understand the emotional states quite differently and the third tendency underlines the necessity of raising ecological validity of experiments. In our research the material for assessing emotional states are natural states which provide higher ecological validity of the procedure and just this determines the motivation for our study.

The object of our research is recognizing emotional states of another person.

The subject of our research is cognitive characteristics related to the recognition of emotional states of another person.

The aim of our investigation is to find out and to examine a connection between the peculiarities of recognizing emotional state by an observer and his/her cognitive characteristics.

To achieve the aim of our exploration we have formulated the following research questions:

  • Firstly to give a review of the problem

  • Secondly to analyze all investigations on the topic

  • Thirdly to choose or develop the right method for measuring recognition of emotional states

  • Finally to develop the model of recognizing emotional states.

Two factors are taken into account – the result and the process while recognizing emotional states of another person. These two factors form the connections with cognitive characteristics of an observer. This is the hypothesis of our study.

The methods of our investigation. According to the structure of organization our exploration is correlative and includes the methods of statistic data processing (correlation analysis). The specific experimental method for a valid assessment of natural emotional states was used for carrying out experiments.

The original contribution of our study is the development of a specific experimental method allowing to get a valid assessment by an observer of natural emotional states of another person.

The practical significance of our investigation. The results of our study can be used by specialists (social workers, actors, teachers, psychologists) in working out recommendations raising the efficiency of assessment of emotional states of people.

Implementations. The results of our exploration were presented at scientific conferences.

On the basis of the work made we have come to the following conclusion:

  • In recognizing emotional states two factors are distinguished: the result and the process

  • There are individual and psychological differences in the result and process of recognizing emotional states

  • Two groups of factors in recognizing emotional states are determined:

  • The first group focuses on individual peculiarities of cognitive conditions of an observer

  • The second group outlines peculiarities of information, available to recognizing of emotional states.


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