Казанский (приволжский) федеральный университет институт языка Кафедра английского языка

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Business Organizations in the UK

Different organizational forms of business organizations in the UK

sole trader partnership registered company

sole trader

Advantages partnership disadvantages

registered company

Registered company and its sub-types

Limited liability Unlimited liability

company company

Company limited

by guarantee Company limited

by shares

Private and public companies limited by shares

private companies public companies


Text Presentation

Business Organizations in the UK

The heading and therefore the subject of the text is Business Organizations in the UK. The author considers the subject under the following headings: firstly different organizational forms of business organizations in the UK, secondly advantages and disadvantages of different organizational forms, then the registered company and its sub-types: unlimited liability company and limited liability company, next the forms of limited liability company: the company limited by guarantee, and the company limited by shares and finally the differences between public and private limited companies.

Let me start with the first point: different organizational forms and underline that the author distinguishes three basic types: the sole trader, the partnership and the registered company. The author gives the definition of these organizational forms.

Thus, the sole trader business is legally owned and controlled by one person. The partnership is a business owned by two or more partners who share the profits and losses. The registered company is an organization that makes or sells goods or services to make a profit. Now we can focus on the advantages and disadvantages of each type. Let’s firstly underline the advantages: among the advantages of the sole trader we can name the next ones: the sole trader has great freedom, can employ other people, retains all the profits. The partnership allows for an increased capital base, improved borrowings and reduces the problems relating to holidays and sickness. Advantages and disadvantages of the registered company depend on the sub-type of the company. In the case of a limited liability company the shareholders have limited liability, if it is an unlimited liability company the shareholders loss all their money if the company goes bankrupt.

A few words about disadvantages. The author outlines the following ones. The sole trader suffers disadvantages including: limited company, limited borrowing, problems with holiday and sickness, and limited scope for expansion. The partnership is not separate legal person under the law, and partners are jointly liable for the debts and obligations of the partnership without limit; and jointly and independently for torts committed by partners and employees of the firm.

Now I’d like to go on to the registered company and its sub-types. The author tells about limited liability company and its sub-types: company limited by guarantee and company limited by shares and unlimited liability company. The company limited by guarantee is a company where shareholders are responsible for paying debts up to a certain amount if the company goes bankrupt. The company limited by shares is a company where shareholders are responsible for paying debts up to the amount of their unpaid shares, if the company goes bankrupt.

And finally I’d like to brief on private and public companies and differences between them. A private company is a company owned by people or other companies; a company whose shares are not openly traded and can only pass to another person with an agreement of other shareholders.

A public company is a company owned by people or other companies; a company whose shares are openly traded. It is important to highlight the differences between public and private companies:

  • the private company has the word Limited (Ltd), whereas the public company has the words Public Limited Company (PLc)

  • the private company may have one director whereas the public company must have at least two

  • there are not age limits for the directors of the private company unless the company is a subsidiary of a public company

  • the company secretary of a private company does not need formal qualifications, whereas the company secretary of a public company does

  • private companies are less strictly regulated, including: restrictions on loans to directors, and regulation of raising and maintenance of capital

  • the starting capital for a public company is Ј50000, whereas a private company can commence trading immediately.

Having considered three main types of business organizations and their sub-types, their advantages and disadvantages we came to the conclusion that the first decision that must be made by those considering incorporation of a business is the type of company that will be suitable.

2. Advertising

Advertising and Promotion

Advertising can be classified into 2 broad categories: informative and persuasive. Typically an advert contains elements of both. When a product is first launched, sales are low because very few customers are aware that it exists. The role of advertising here may be to inform the public of the product's existence and its particular uses. The same applies when a product has been modified or improved. In other cases, e.g. new cars or scientific calculators, the nature of the product may be such that a large amount of technical information has to be supplied, and advertising again may have to be informative. Advertising that informs and educates consumers gives them greater choice in their selection of goods and services. It can be seen as a form of competition between firms and may encourage manufacturers to improve their products to the benefit of the consumer.

Persuasive advertising, as its name implies, is used to try and persuade a consumer to buy a particular product. Such advertising is subjective and contains many statements of opinion rather than fact, e.g. 'Carlsberg - the best lager in the world ... probably'. Persuasive advertising is normally associated with consumer products and is used heavily where differences between products are minor, e.g. toothpaste, baked beans, soap powder, washing liquids and lager.

Persuasive advertising has been criticized because it emphasizes the advantages of a product and attempts to make those who do not use the product feel as if they are missing out. It plays on jealousy, envy and 'keeping up with the Joneses'. However, there are a number of regulations that control the content of advertisements, and firms are required to follow the British Code of Advertising Practice. Some important extracts from this code are:

  • all advertisements should be legal, decent, honest and truthful

  • all advertisements should be prepared with a sense of responsibility to the consumer

  • all advertisements should conform to the principles of fair competition as generally accepted in business

  • no advertisement should bring advertising into disrepute or reduce confidence in advertising as a service to industry and to the public.

When the code is breached advertisers are quick to amend or withdraw the advertisement concerned. If they do not do this the media may agree not to sell them advertising space or airtime and they may risk unwelcome publicity from the Advertising Standards Authority. In the case of TV commercials, every film must be approved for transmission before it can be screened, to ensure that it complies with the Independent Broadcasting Authority's Code of Practice.

It is normally very difficult to distinguish between the persuasive and informative elements in any advertisement. There is generally a blend of both.

Perhaps the best example of informative advertising is the advert for Begee's, which simply states what the company sells, its address and telephone number. The advert for Charles King has elements of both. It informs the consumer of opening times for parts and accessories, and of the location of the company, but also tries to persuade the consumer by the offer of a free gift for Sunday shoppers. The advert for Vitapointe is obviously the one that contains the largest persuasive element.

Once the firm has decided that advertising is going to play some role in the marketing of its product(s), it must then decide on the message, the media and the receiver. All these factors will be linked. It could be that the receiver - the so-called target audience -will determine the message and the media. If, for example, the product is a children's toy, the advert should be placed on television at particular times of the day.

In designing the message the advertiser will need to consider the following:

  • the content of the message: this will depend on the type of product and the market in which it is to be sold

  • who is the receiver? The message may be directed at a particular group of the population, in which case it may have to be delivered in a particular way using a certain media

  • the person used to send the message: very often large firms use celebrities that they think are appropriate for the product, e.g. Steve Cram and Start breakfast cereal, Jerry Hall and Bovril and Daley Thomson and Lucozade

  • the timing and number of messages: an advertiser has a choice between 2 approaches to an advertising campaign. It can be extensive, where the object is to reach as wide an audience as possible using different media. On the other hand, it can be intensive, where the object is to reach a particular group repeatedly (e.g. products such as lager, coffee, washing powder and toilet rolls advertised intensively on television).

Having decided on the message, the advertiser then has to choose the most cost-effective medium (or media). This means choosing the medium that delivers the message to the right (and largest) audience at the lowest possible cost. Examples of the media available are: commercial television, independent local radio, newspapers, magazines, billboards, buses, trains and bus shelters. For a firm advertising an industrial product the choice may be limited to exhibitions, specialist magazines and direct mail.

Используя текст, план – схему подготовьте презентацию




informative persuasive

role cases role


message media target audience



3. Используя план-схему подготовьте презентацию

The System of Government


The Queen is head of government,

she makes laws with parliament

and she is head of the courts

4. Используя заголовок составьте план-схему

и подготовьте презентацию

Consumer Protection

Artificial Intelligence

Law and Society

The Role of Computers in Business

The System of Government in Russia

Mass Media


Knowledge is the Ability to Make

Everyone Around You Feels Smarter




Islam in European Thought

From the time it first appeared, the religion of Islam was a problem for Christian Europe. Those who believed in it were the enemy on the frontier. In the seventh and eighth centuries armies fighting in the name of the first Muslim empire, the Caliphate, expanded into the heart of the Christian world. They occupied provinces of the Byzantine empire in Syria, the Holy Land and Egypt, and spread westwards into North Africa, Spain and Sicily; and the conquest was not only a military one, it was followed in course of time by conversions to Islam on a large scale. Between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries there was a Christian counter attack, successful for a time in the Holy Land, where a Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was created, and more permanently in Spain. The last Muslim kingdom in Spain was brought to an end in 1492, but by that time there was a further Muslim expansion elsewhere, by dynasties drawn from the Turkish peoples: the Saljuqs advanced into Anatolia, and later the Otto­mans extinguished what was left of the Byzantine empire and occupied its capital, Constantinople, and expanded into eastern and central Europe. As late as the seventeenth century they were able to occupy the island of Crete and to threaten Vienna.

The relationship between Muslims and European Christians, however, was not simply one of holy war, of crusade and jihad. There was trade across the Mediterranean, and the balance of it changed in course of time; from the eleventh and twelfth centuries onwards the Italian ports expanded their trade, and, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, ships from the ports of northern Europe began to appear in the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. There was also an exchange of ideas, and here the traffic moved mainly from the lands of Islam to those of Christendom: Arabic works of philosophy, science and medicine were translated into Latin, and until the sixteenth century the writings of the great medical scientist Ibn Sina were used in European medical schools.

Separated by conflict but held together by ties of different kinds, Christians and Muslims presented a religious and intellectual challenge to each other. What could each religion make of the claims of the other? For Muslim thinkers, the status of Christianity was clear. Jesus was one of the line of authentic prophets which had culminated in Muhammad, the 'Seal of the Prophets', and his authentic message was essentially the same as that of Muhammad. Christians had misunderstood their faith, however: they thought of their prophet as a god, and believed he had been crucified. The usual Muslim explanation for this was that they had 'corrupted' their scriptures, either by tampering with the text, or by misunderstanding its meaning. Properly understood, Muslim thinkers maintained, the Christian scrip­tures did not support Christian claims that Jesus was divine, and a passage of the Qur'an made clear that he had not been crucified but had somehow been taken up into heaven. Again, Christians did not accept the authenticity of the revelation given to Muhammad, but a proper interpretation of the Bible would show that it had foretold the coming of Muhammad.

For Christians, the matter was more difficult. They knew that Muslims believed in one God, who might be regarded, in His nature and operations, as being the God whom Christians worshiped, but they could not easily accept that Muhammad was an authentic prophet. The event to which Old Testament prophecy had pointed, the coming of Christ, had already taken place; what need was there for further prophets? The teaching of Muhammad, moreover, was a denial of the central doctrines of Christianity: the Incarnation and Crucifixion, and therefore also the Trinity and the Atonement. Could the Qur'an be regarded in any sense as the word of God? To the few Christians who knew anything about it, the Qur'an seemed to contain distorted echoes of biblical stories and themes.

With few exceptions, Christians in Europe who thought about Islam, during the first thousand or so years of the confrontation, did so in a state of ignorance. The Qur'an was indeed available in Latin translation from the twelfth century onwards; the first translation was made under the direction of Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny. Some Arabic philosophical works were well known in translation, those which carried on the tradition of Greek thought. There was very limited knowledge, however, of those works of theology, law and spirituality in which what had been given in the Qur'an was articulated into a system of thought and practice. There were a few exceptions: in the thirteenth century, some of the Dominican houses in Spain were centers of Islamic studies, but even these declined in later centuries. On the Muslim side, rather more was known, and indeed had to be known. Christians continued to live in some Muslim countries, and particularly in Spain, Egypt and Syria, and many of them lived through the medium of the Arabic language. Knowledge of what they believed and practised was therefore available, and it was necessary for administrative and political purposes. The extent of the knowledge should not be exaggerated, however: its limits are shown in such works as al-Ghazali's refutation of the doctrine of the divinity of Christ1.

Looking at Islam with a mixture of fear, bewilderment and uneasy recognition of a kind of spiritual kinship, Christians could see it in more than one light. Occasionally the spiritual kinship was acknowledged. There is extant, for example, a letter written by Pope Gregory VII to a Muslim prince in Algeria, al-Nasir, in 1076. In it he says:

There is a charity which we owe to each other more than to other peoples, because we recognize and confess one sole God, although in different ways, and we praise and worship Him every day as creator and ruler of the world 2.

There has been some discussion of this letter among scholars, and it seems that its significance should not be overstated. It has been suggested that there were practical reasons for the warm and friendly tone in which Gregory wrote: the need to protect the shrinking Christian communities of North Africa, the common opposition of the Papacy and al-Nasir to another Muslim ruler in North Africa, and perhaps the desire of merchants in Rome to have a share in the growing trade of the port of Bougie (Bijaya), in al-Nasir's domains. In other letters, written to Christians, Gregory wrote of Muslims and Islam in harsher ways. Nevertheless, the terms in which the letter is written show that there was some awareness at the time that Muslims were not pagans, and this is the more surprising because it was written just before the beginning of the greatest episode of hostility, the Crusades.

A more commonly held view was that which saw Islam as an offshoot or heresy of Christianity. This was the view of the first Christian theologian to consider it seriously, St John of Damascus. He had himself been an official in the administration of the Umayyad caliph in Damascus, and knew Arabic.

He includes Islam in a section of his work on Christian heresies: it believes in God, but denies certain of the essential truths of Christianity, and because of this denial even the truths which it accepts are devoid of meaning. The most widely held belief, however, was that which lay at the other end of the spectrum: Islam is a false religion, Allah is not God, Muhammad was not a prophet; Islam was invented by men whose motives and character were to be deplored, and propagated by the sword3.

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