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Use of English
For questions 1–10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.
The Black Sea
Arriving in the Black Sea port of Batumi was a dream 1 ________ true for me. For years I had longed to 2 ________ slowly along the promenade 3 ________ out over this landlocked sea, so as I headed to the coast, I felt both excited and strangely nervous. According 4 _________ my guidebook, the Black Sea is more like a lake than a sea. It has no tides, and, thanks to modern 5 _________, we now know that below a certain depth it is too poisonous to sustain life. But its calm surface gives a false 6 __________; on stormy days, the churning waters can have a 7 __________ effect on shipping.
My travelling companion and I had bought cheap tickets on the overnight train from Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. By the time we arrived in Batumi, we were so tired and hungry that we virtually 8 _______ off the train. We had a few 9 _________ to eat from the previous night’s meal, but nothing appetising. We had a very 10 _________ time that first evening though, excited 11 __________ the thought of being by the sea where once, 12 __________ the sudden storms, Ancient Greeks traded and Byzantine ships patrolled the shores.
Reading Passage 1 has nine paragraphs A–I.
Choose the most suitable headings for each paragraph from the list of headings given.
The coral reefs of Agatti Island
A Agatti is one of the Lakshadweep Islands off the south-west coast of India. These islands are surrounded by lagoons and coral reefs which are in turn surrounded by the open ocean. Coral reefs, which are formed from the skeletons of minute sea creatures, give shelter to a variety of plants and animals, and therefore have the potential to provide a stream of diverse benefits to the inhabitants of Agatti Island.
B In the first place, the reefs provide food and other products for consumption by the islanders themselves. Foods include different types of fish, octopus and molluscs, and in the case of poorer families these constitute as much as 90% of the protein they consume. Reef resources are also used for medicinal purposes. For example, the money cowrie, a shell known locally as Vallakavadi, is commonly made into a paste and used as a home remedy to treat cysts in the eye.
C In addition, the reef contributes to income generation. According to a recent survey, 20% of the households on Agatti report lagoon fishing, or shingle, mollusc, octopus and cowrie collection as their main occupation (Hoon et al, 2002). For poor households, the direct contribution of the reef to their financial resources is significant: 12% of poor households are completely dependent on the reef for their household income, while 59% of poor households rely on the reef for 70% of their household income, and the remaining 29% for 50% of their household income.
D Bartering of reef resources also commonly takes place, both between islanders and between islands. For example, Agatti Island is known for its abundance of octopus, and this is often used to obtain products from nearby Androth Island. Locally, reef products may be given by islanders in return for favours, such as help in constructing a house or net mending, or for other products such as rice, coconuts or fish.
E The investment required to exploit the reefs is minimal. It involves simple, locally available tools and equipment, some of which can be used without a boat, such as the fishing practice known as Kat moodsal. This is carried out in the shallow eastern lagoon of Agatti by children and adults, close to shore at low tide, throughout the year. A small cast net, a leaf bag, and plastic slippers are all that are required, and the activity can yield 10–12 small fish (approximately 1 kg) for household consumption. Cast nets are not expensive, and all the households in Agatti own at least one. Even the boats, which operate in the lagoon and near-shore reef, are constructed locally and have low running costs. They are either small, non-mechanical, traditional wooden rowing boats, known as Thonis, or rafts, known as Tharappam.
F During more than 400 years of occupation and survival, the Agatti islanders have developed an intimate knowledge of the reefs. They have knowledge of numerous different types of fish and where they can be found according to the tide or lunar cycle. They have also developed a local naming system or folk taxonomy, naming fish according to their shape. Sometimes the same species is given different names depending on its size and age. For example, a full grown Emperor fish is called Metti and a juvenile is called Killokam. The abundance of each species at different fishing grounds is also well known. Along with this knowledge of reef resources, the islanders have developed a wide range of skills and techniques for exploiting them. A multitude of different fishing techniques are still used by the islanders, each targeting different areas of the reef and particular species.
G The reef plays an important role in the social lives of the islanders too, being an integral part of traditions and rituals. Most of the island’s folklore revolves around the reef and sea. There is hardly any tale or song which does not mention the traditional sailing crafts, known as Odams, the journeys of enterprising ‘heroes’, the adventures of sea fishing and encounters with sea creatures. Songs that women sing recollect women looking for returning Odams, and requesting the waves to be gentler and the breeze just right for the sails. There are stories of the benevolent sea ghost baluvam, whose coming to shore is considered a harbinger of prosperity for that year, bringing more coconuts, more fish and general well-being.
H The reef is regarded by the islanders as common property, and all the islanders are entitled to use the lagoon and reef resources. In the past, fishing groups would obtain permission from the Amin (island head person) and go fishing in the grounds allotted by him. On their return, the Amin would be given a share of the catch, normally one of the best or biggest fish. This practice no longer exists, but there is still a code of conduct or etiquette for exploiting the reef, and common respect for this is an effective way of avoiding conflict or disputes.
I Exploitation of such vast and diverse resources as the reefs and lagoon surrounding the island has encouraged collaborative efforts, mainly for purposes of safety, but also as a necessity in the operation of many fishing techniques. For example, an indigenous gear and operation known as Bala fadal involves 25–30 men. Reef gleaning for cowrie collection by groups of 6–10 women is also a common activity, and even today, although its economic significance is marginal, it continues as a recreational activity.
Choose the correct answer, A, B, C, or D.
What does the author say in paragraph 1 about the date July 4, 1845?
On Walden Pond
1 During his lifetime, Henry David Thoreau wrote over twenty books—travel books, books of poetry, and collections of essays—but none has had such a lasting influence as Walden, an account of the time he spent in a tiny house on the shore of Walden Pond near Concord, Massachusetts. Born in 1817 in Concord, Thoreau graduated from Harvard University in nearby Cambridge, Massachusetts. When he returned to Concord, he worked for his father, who manufactured pencils, and tutored the children of writer Ralph W. Emerson, Thoreau’s friend and mentor. Thoreau then decided to move to a relatively isolated one-room cabin in the woods just outside of Concord on land owned by Emerson. Thoreau began clearing the land and building the cabin in the spring of 1845 and, perhaps significantly, he chose to move in on July 4 of that year—on the holiday celebrating the independence of the United States in 1776. He lived on the pond for two years, but in Walden, he compresses that time into a single year.
2 Thoreau wrote in Walden, “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately . . . and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.” Essentially, Walden is Thoreau’s description of an experiment in self-reliance and in living the simple life. He believed that owning anything beyond the basic necessities of life was an obstacle to a happy life rather than an advantage. He wrote, “I see young men . . . whose misfortune it is to have inherited farms, houses, barns, cattle, and farming tools; for these are more easily acquired than got rid of.” He built his own house for a mere $28.13 (about $300.00 in today’s dollars). He grew beans and other vegetables, which he sold for a modest profit. In Walden, he includes a rather lengthy, detailed reckoning of how much he spent and how much he earned, information which some readers find tedious. He spent the rest of his time at the pond walking in the woods, reading, and writing a book about a canoe trip with his brother, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.
3 Although Thoreau valued solitude and spent much time alone, he was not completely cut off from society. His cabin was close to the road to Concord and he often walked to town to do business and have dinner with family or friends. He entertained visitors at his cabin and his mother sometimes brought him meals. Richard Zachs, a contemporary critic, says that it was like “suburban boys going to their tree house in the backyard and pretending they're camping in the heart of the jungle.”
4 Thoreau had an ambivalent attitude towards technology. He invented a method of making pencils from low-grade clay for use in his father’s factory. But he was suspicious of the greatest technological innovations of his time, the telegraph and the railroad. He pointed out in Walden that the nation was hastily building a telegraph system that would soon link the country from Maine to Texas, but Thoreau said “Maine and Texas, it may be, have nothing important to communicate.” He believed that trains gave people an illusion of freedom, but in fact represented a new servitude, because it meant obeying fixed train schedules and routes. He also wrote that he found a “train” of clouds moving across the sunrise of much more interest than a train of railroad cars going to Boston.
5 Thoreau was a dedicated student of nature. Walden is filled with minute observations of animals, plants, and weather. He wrote, “For years I was a self-appointed inspector of snowstorms and rainstorms.” When writing about animals, he would relate their behavior to that of humans, as in his fascinating account of war between red and black ants. His writings about the “interconnectedness” of nature anticipate the environmental movement by about 125 years.
6 Like his fellow New Englander, twentieth-century poet Robert Frost, Thoreau wrote in a style that seems folksy on the surface, but it contains wit and symbolism. Thoreau sprinkled his prose with classical allusions as well as with word play and puns, some of which are difficult for today’s readers to comprehend. Thoreau can be poetic too, as when he beautifully describes ice on the pond. But despite the clarity of his writing, Walden is not an easy book, especially for first time readers. It has no plot line, no real characters outside of Thoreau himself, and even the most enthusiastic Thoreau admirer would probably agree that some of his descriptions of ponds, woods and storms go on too long. But it is an important book, and definitely worth the effort.
Критерии оценки устного монологического высказывания:
2. Лексическая грамотность изложения
3. Словарная наполняемость и целесообразность использования языковых средств
4. Полнота раскрытия темы
5. Структурная организация высказывания
Критерии оценки устного диалогического высказывания:
2. Лексическая грамотность изложения
3. Словарная наполняемость и целесообразность использования языковых средств
4. Полнота раскрытия темы
5. Структурная организация высказывания
6. Стремление к коммуникативному партнерству
Пример грамматического теста
Пример текста на устное реферирование
Banks make their profits by lending the money which customers deposit with them to others who need it for personal or business reasons. Most people need more money than they have currently available at some time in their lives.
To be a borrower you must be a customer of the bank because the money will be lent to you through a bank account. There are two ways in which you may borrow. The first, and easy, is to spend more money than you have in your current account — to overdraw. The second, and the normal way of borrowing larger amounts or for a long period of time is the loan.
If a manager permits an overdraft on current account he is likely to set a limit to the size of the overdraft and may stipulate a date by which the account is back in credit. Businesses whose payments and receipts are often irregular will frequently need to use overdraft facilities and they are often granted to private customers as well particularly when the manager knows that regular payments are made directly into the account.
If a loan is granted it will be a fixed sum immediately available for a fixed period of time. The principal and the interest on it may all become due for payment at the end of that period but for personal loans it is common to arrange that the loan and interest are repaid in equal regular installments over the period of the loan. A separate account is opened to record the repayments as they are made.
Пример текста на перевод со словарем
Translate the following text into Russian
The hottest debate over the world economy is not on the fate of America; it's on the fate of China. Will it be the worst victim, or the most successful survivor, of the global crisis of 2009? So far the news all points to success, as the Asian giant defies the old assumption that an American recession would trigger a Chinese depression. Long dependent on exports to America, China continues to grow strongly despite a collapse of exports, down 26.4 percent in May alone. The reason is growth at home, with retail sales up 15.2 percent in May, and house and car sales taking off. To some, this is evidence that China has hit a new state of development, emerging as a consumer society wealthy enough to rival America as the world's best customer, and in some ways it has. The problem is that the consumer driving the boom is not the individual, because the Chinese shopper has been in retreat in recent years. The real big spender is the government.
China's economic recovery is real, but it's been bought by the state. No political party in the world can spend quite as freely right now as China's Communist Party, with its nearly $2 trillion in reserves and budget authority unchecked by rival parties or institutions. Beijing's stimulus plan amounts to 4 percent of GDP, double America's 2 percent, and China can deliver this booster shot without resorting to foreign borrowing. Government investment has driven the Chinese boom for a long time, and it is up 30 percent since the beginning of the year, with 75 percent of the money going into infrastructure; spending on rail lines and roads has more than doubled over the past 12 months. New community centers, convention halls, and sports facilities are springing up in major cities and provinces. Central and local governments are raising subsidies to support idle factories, retrain workers, and boost income aid in hard-hit areas. New government lending, as well as government orders to banks to raise lending, is helping to spur a surge in apartment sales. The state is even handing out spending vouchers directly to consumers, particularly in rural areas, good for cars, refrigerators, and other products, many with price restrictions that effectively limit the vouchers to inexpensive Chinese brands. As a top executive at one Chinese state-owned bank puts it, "This is all about the government propping things up."
The hidden hand of the state can obscure the degree to which China still depends on subsidized exports to America. Among the hardest-hit areas are those such as Guangdong province, a southern factory hub that represents an eighth of China's wealth and a quarter of its exports. There five-star hotels built in the boom times stand empty, while job centers for laid-off migrant workers are full. On a recent evening, the Pearl River itself seemed dimmer—many of the garish light displays that usually blaze from waterfront inns and restaurants had been turned off "to save electricity," says Su Caifang, deputy director general of the Guangdong Foreign Affairs Office, who notes that the province has suffered greatly in recent months because of the global downturn. "We're still very export-dependent, especially on America," says Su, who notes that 40 percent of the region's exports go to the U.S.
6.2 Методические рекомендации по изучению английского языка для студентов
Слова: как запоминать слова?
Чтение сообщим охватом содержания
Чтение на скорость
Читать по предложениям несколько раз.
Читать, закрывая половину строки
Чтение с ограничением времени.
Для данного вида аудирования полезными будут все вышеизложенные указания. Дополнительно во время повторного прослушивания рекомендуется составить план и выписать по ходу звучания ключевые слова.
Перед письменными работами рекомендуется просмотреть тот материал, по которому проводиться данная работа.
При написании творческой работы, предварительно необходимо сформулировать тему и аргументирование, т.е. составить развернутый план, а затем приступать к ее написанию.
Настоящая программа носит интегративный и интерактивный характер и предполагает тесную взаимосвязь и взаимопроникновение всех языковых аспектов и речевых навыков. Особое внимание следует уделить организации самостоятельной работы студентов (в том числе с использованием возможностей электронной обучающей платформы Moodle).
Преподавание дисциплины предусматривает использование преподавателем всего многообразия форм и методов работы по формированию и развитию иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студентов, которая включает: в области развития устной речи – составление и воспроизведение диалогических и монологических высказываний (сообщений, докладов, заметок, презентаций и пр.), реферирование статей из аутентичных источников, творческое развитие идей, интервью, переговоры, телефонные разговоры, ролевые игры и т.д.
В области письменной речи – написание официальных и неофициальных писем, служебных записок, отчетов, сочинений на заданную тему, эссе, электронных сообщений, факсов и т.д.
6.4 Материалы для самостоятельной работы студентов (см. календарно-тематические планы по специальностям).
Кроме того, самостоятельная работа студентов организуется и контролируется c помощью университетской электронной обучающей платформы MOODLE (www.vksait.ksu.ru), где преподавателями ИЯ представлены соответствующие программы.
1.Гальскова Н.Д., Гез Н.И. Теория обучения иностранным языкам: Лингводидактика и методика. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2005. – 336 с
2.Михайлов Н.Н., Михайлов М.Н. Лингвострановедение США.- М: Академия,2008.-268 с.
3.Щукин А.Н. Лингводидактический энциклопедический словарь. - М.: Астрель,: АСТ: Хранитель, 2007. - 746с.
4.Hall E., Mascull B., Riley D.Market Leader: Pre-Intermediate Teacher’s Book. – Longman, 2006.
5.Hall E., Mascull B., Riley D.Market Leader: Intermediate Teacher’s Book. – Longman, 2006.
6.Hall E., Mascull B., Riley D.Market Leader: Upper-Intermediate Teacher’s Book. – Longman, 2006.
7.Johnston O., Farrell M. Ideas and Issues: Intermediate. – London: Chancerel, 1998.
8.Oxenden C., Latham-Koenig Ch. New English File Upper-Intermediate Teacher’s Book. – Oxford University press, 2007.
9.Rinvolucri M. Grammar Games: cognitive, Affective and drama Activities for EFL Students. – N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
10.Rundell M. Cutting Edge: Mini-Dictionary. Pre-Intermediate. – Essex: Pearson Education 2001.
11.Rundell M. Cutting Edge: Mini-Dictionary. Intermediate. – Essex: Pearson Education 2000 Oxenden C., Latham-Koenig Ch., Seligson P. New English File Pre-Intermediate Teacher’s Book. - Oxford University press, 2005.
12.Oxenden C., Latham-Koenig Ch. New English File Intermediate Teacher’s Book. – Oxford University press, 2006.
13. Stanton A., Morris S. Fast track to CAE Teacher’s book– Essex: Pearson Education 2003.
14. Stanton A., Morris S. Fast track to CAE Teacher’s book– Essex: Pearson Education 2003.
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