Учебно-методический комплекс материалов по дисциплине «Методика преподавания иностранных языков»




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LECTURE 5 EVALUATION AND TESTING

5.1 Correction and Feedback

Preliminary definition: What is feedback?

In the context of teaching in general, feedback is information that is given to the learner about his or her performance of a learning task, usually with the objective of improving this performance. Some examples in language teaching:

the words 'Yes, right!', said to a learner who has answered a question; a grade of 70% on an exam; a raised eyebrow in response to a mistake in grammar; comments written in the margin of an essay.

Feedback has two main distinguishable components: assessment and correction. In assessment, the learner is simply informed how well or badly he or she has performed. A percentage grade on an exam would be one example; or the response 'No' to an attempted answer to a question in class; or a comment such as 'Fair' at the end of a written assignment. In correction, some specific information is provided on aspects of the learner's performance: through explanation, or provision of better or other alternatives, or through elicitation of these from the learner. Note that in principle correction can and should include information on what the learner did right, as well as wrong, and why! - but teachers and learners generally understand the term as referring to the correction of mistakes, so that is (usually) how it is used here.

The relationship between assessment and correction

It is, of course, perfectly possible to give assessment without correcting, as when a final percentage mark on an exam is made known to a learner without the exam itself being returned or commented on. The other way round is very much less feasible: it is virtually impossible to comment on what is right or wrong in what a learner has done without conveying some kind of assessment. If a correction is supplied, the learner is very aware that this means the teacher thinks something was wrong; if comment is given on why something was appropriate, there is necessarily an underlying message of commendation.

Teachers are sometimes urged to be ‘non-judgemental’ when giving feedback. Although any meaningful feedback is going to involve some kind of judgement It is more useful, perhaps, to accept that there is judgement involved, but to try to make the attitude to this more positive: that mistakes are a natural and useful part of language learning; that when the teacher gives feedback on them, the purpose is to help and promote learning; and that 'getting it wrong' is not ‘bad’, but rather a way into 'getting it ‘right’.

Approaches to the giving of feedback

Below you will find expressions of selected opinions on the nature and functions of assessment and mistake correction; these are based on different theories of language learning or methodologies

Assessment: different opinions

Audio-lingualism

Negative assessment is to be avoided as far as possible since it functions as 'punishment' and may inhibit or discourage learning. Positive assessment provides reinforcement of correct responses, and promotes learning.

Humanistic methodologies

A crucial function of the giving of assessment is to preserve and promote a positive self-image of the learner as a person and language learner. Assessment therefore should be positive or non-judgemental.

Skill theory

For successful acquisition of a skill, the learner needs feedback on how well he or she is doing; hence the importance of the provision of constant and honest assessment

The correction of mistakes: different opinions

Audio-lingualism

Learner mistakes are, in principle, avoided by the limiting of progress to very small, controlled steps: hence there should be little need for correction. The latter is, in any case, not useful for learning; people learn by getting things right in the first place and having their performance reinforced.

Cognitive code-learning

Mistakes are regrettable, but an unavoidable part of learning; they should be corrected whenever they occur to prevent them occurring again.

Intel-language

Mistakes are not regrettable, but an integral and important part of language learning;

correcting them is a way of bringing the learner's ‘intwerlanguage’ closer to the target language.

Communicative approach

Not all mistakes need to be corrected; the main aim of language learning is to receive and convey meaningful messages, and correction should be focused on mistakes that interfere with this aim, not on inaccuracies of usage.

Monitor theory

Correction does not contribute to real acquisition of the language, but only to the learner's conscious 'monitoring' of speech or writing. Hence the main activity of the teacher should be to provide comprehensible input from which the learner can acquire language, not to correct.

Assessment

Most of the feedback we give our learners is ongoing correction and assessment directed at specific bits of learner-produced language with the aim of bringing about improvement; the type of evaluation involved here is sometimes called 'formative', since its main purpose is to ‘form’: to enhance, not conclude, a process. Distinct from this is the evaluation usually termed ‘summative’, when the teacher evaluates an overall aspect of the learner's knowledge in order to summarize the situation: how proficient he or she is at a certain point in time, for example, or how much he or she has progressed during a particular course. Summative evaluation may contribute little or nothing to the ongoing teaching/learning process; but it is a part of the teacher's job, something we need to know how to do effectively.

Below are descriptions of various ways of gathering the information which will serve as a basis for assessment, and of some common criteria used for assessing it.

Gathering information (1): Tests

The most common way of gathering information for assessment is through tests; the usual criterion is an arbitrary level which the learner is expected to have reached; and the result is generally expressed through percentages.

Gathering information (2): Other sources

There, are, however, various problems with tests as a basis for summative evaluation: they are a one-off event which may not necessarily give a fair sample of the learner's overall proficiency; they are not always valid (actually testing what they say they are) or reliable (giving consistent results); and if they are seen as the sole basis for a crucial evaluation in the learner's career, they can be extremely stressful.

Other options do, however, exist. These are summarized below.

1. Teacher's assessment. The teacher gives a subjective estimate of the learner's overall performance.

2. Continuous assessment. The final grade is some kind of combination of the grades the learner received for various assignments during the course.

3. Self-assessment. The learners themselves evaluate their own performance, using clear criteria and weighting systems agreed on beforehand.

4. Portfolio. The learner gathers a collection of assignments and projects done over a long period into a file; and this portfolio provides the basis for evaluation.

Criteria

Having collected the 'evidence' of the learners' proficiency in one or more of the ways described above, the teacher has to decide how good it is? The following are some of the possibilities.

1. Criterion-referenced: how well the learner is performing relative to a fixed criterion, where this is based on an estimation of what it is reasonable or desirable to demand from learners at the relevant point in their development (age, career, level, stage of a course).

2. Norm-referenced: how well the learner is performing relative to the group. In this case, a group of slow learners would be assessed according to different, easier, norms than a group of faster ones.

3. Individual-referenced: how well the learner is performing relative to his or her own previous performance, or relative to an estimate of his or her individual ability.

What criteria do/would you yourself use in assessing learners' performance? Would you combine different criteria? Would you take into account learners' effort, motivation and progress in deciding on a final grade?

Correcting mistakes in oral work

There are some situations where we might prefer not to correct a learner's mistake: in fluency work, for example, when the learner is in mid-speech, and to correct would disturb and discourage more than help. But there are other situations when correction is likely to be helpful.

The recommendation not to correct a learner during fluent speech is in principle a valid one, but perhaps an over-simplification. There can be places where to refrain from providing an acceptable form where the speaker is obviously uneasy or 'floundering' can actually be demoralizing, and gentle, supportive intervention can help. Conversely, even where the emphasis is on getting the language right, we may not always correct: in a grammar exercise, for example, if the learner has contributed an interesting or personal piece of information that does not happen to use the target form; also, when they have got most of an item right we may prefer not to draw attention to a relatively trivial mistake.

Oral corrections are usually provided directly by the teacher; but they may also be elicited from the learner who made the mistake in the first place, or by another member of the class. Corrections may or may not include a clarification of why the mistake was made, and may or may not require re-production of the acceptable form by the learner.

As important as what the correction consists of is how it is expressed: gently or assertively, supportively or as a condemnation, tactfully or rudely. On the whole, of course, we should go for encouraging, tactful correction; but it is less easy to generalize about gently/assertively: some learner populations respond better to the one, some to the other. In general, in fact, learner responses to different expressions of feedback are often surprising: a teacher correction that seems to an observer a humiliating ‘put-down’ may not be perceived as such by the learner to whom it was addressed; or an apparently gentle, tactful one may give offence. A good deal of teacher sensitivity is needed here.


5.2 Tests and Testing

People vary very widely in their reactions to tests. Some like the sense of challenge; others find it unpleasant. Some perform at their best under test conditions, others perform badly.

Thus, it would be a mistake to come out with sweeping statements like: 'People get very stressed when they are tested', or 'Tests are unpopular'. The amount of unpleasant stress associated with a test depends on various factors, at least some of which may be under the control of the teacher: how well the learners are prepared for it and how confident they feel of success; what rewards and penalties are associated with success or failure (how important the results are perceived to be); how clear the test items are; how easy the test is as a whole; how often such tests are given; and so on.

Types of tests

1. Questions and answers

These can be used to test almost anything. The more 'closed' the question is (that is, the fewer the possible options for correct answers), the easier the item will be to mark. It is fairly easy to compose and grade closed-ended questions; more open, thought-provoking ones are more difficult, but may actually test better.

2. True/false

This does not directly test writing or speaking abilities: only listening or reading. It may be used to test aspects of language such as vocabulary, grammar, content of a reading or listening passage. It is fairly easy to design; it is also easy to administer, whether orally or in writing, and to mark.

3. Multiple-choice

This may be used for the same testing purposes as true/false items; it does test rather more thoroughly since it offers more optional answers and is obviously very easy to mark. It is administered more conveniently through writing; but note that since the reading of the question-and-options is fairly time-consuming, the process of comprehension of the actual question items may take more time and effort than the point ostensibly tested, which raises problems of validity. Another important problem is that good multiple-choice questions are surprisingly difficult to design: they often come out ambiguous, or with no clear right answer, or with their solutions over-obvious. They are to be approached with caution!

4. Gap-filling and completion

This usually tests grammar or vocabulary, as in the examples. It is tedious to compose, though not so difficult as multiple-choice; it is more easily administered in writing than in speech; the marking is usually simple. You may need to be aware that there is more than one possible right answer.

5. Matching

This usually tests vocabulary, and is rather awkward to administer orally: thus it is best presented written on the board or on paper, though responses may be either oral or in writing. Items can be time-consuming and difficult to compose, and again, there may be alternative 'right' answers to any particular item. Answers are fairly easily checked.

6. Dictation

This mainly tests spelling, perhaps punctuation, and, perhaps surprisingly on the face of it, listening comprehension: people can only usually write words down accurately from dictation if they understand them. It does not, however, test other writing skills or speech, and involves very little reading. It may supply some information on testees' passive knowledge of pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. It is very easy to prepare and administer; it is relatively easy to mark, though there may be a problem deciding how much weight to attribute to different mistakes.

7. Cloze

This tests (intensive) reading, spelling, and to some extent knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. It can be adapted to 'target' specific language items, by, for example, omitting all the verbs (in which case it is not, strictly speaking, 'cloze', but rather 'gap-filling'). It is fairly easy to prepare and administer. Marking can be tricky: you may find it difficult sometimes to decide if a specific item is 'acceptable' or not.

8. Transformation

This item is relatively easy to design, administer and mark, but its validity may be suspect. It tests the ability of the testee to transform grammatical structures, which is not the same as testing grammar: a testee may perform well on transformation items without knowing the meaning of the target structure or how to use it in context. Marking is fairly straightforward.

9. Rewriting

This tests the same sort of thing as transformation, but is likely to reflect more thorough knowledge of the target items, since it involves paraphrasing the entire meaning of a sentence rather than transforming a particular item. It is, however, more difficult to compose, and the marking may be more subjective. It is, as its name suggests, usually done in writing.

10. Translation

A technique which, at the time of writing, is for various reasons rather unpopular, but in my opinion undeservedly so. In a monolingual class whose teacher also speaks the learners' mother tongue, the translation of a 'bit' of language to or from the target language can give very quick and reliable information on what the testee does or does not know, particularly when it involves entire units of meaning (phrases, sentences) within a known context. Translation items are also relatively easy to compose - even improvise, in an informal test - and administer, in either speech or writing. Marking may sometimes be more difficult, but not prohibitively so.

11.Essay

This is a good test of general writing abilities. It is relatively easy to provide a topic and tell the class to write an essay about it but marking is extremely difficult and time-consuming. It must be clear in advance, both to you and to the students, how much emphasis you are going to lay on language forms, such as spelling, grammar, punctuation, and how much on aspects of content, such as interest and originality of ideas, effectiveness of expression, organization

12. Monologue

This tests oral fluency in 'long turns' - something not everyone can do in their mother tongue! It also tests overall knowledge of pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. To choose a topic and allot it is not so difficult; to assess is very difficult indeed, demanding concentration and a very clear set of criteria and weighting system.

Stages in testing. Below are given some recommendations of an experienced teacher how to organize testing.

Before the test

I use the period leading up to the test in order to do all I can to ensure that my students will succeed in it. Thus the tests are announced at least a week in advance in order to give them plenty of time to prepare and details are given of when, where and how long the test will be. The class is also told as precisely as possible what material is to be tested, what sort of items will be used, and how answers will be assessed. I sometimes give them 'test-tips' - for example, how best to allot time, or what to do first - particularly if they are coming near to the state school-leaving exam, for which my course is to some extent a preparation. I usually allow at least some class time for revision, in order to encourage and help with pre-test learning.

Giving the test

It is quite important for me to administer the test myself, and more pleasant for my students. Thus, I will be able, if I wish, to remind them about the test content, format and marking system before giving out the papers; and sometimes run through the instructions with them after doing so in order to make sure that everything is clear - as well as wishing them good luck!

During the test, I may help students who still have difficulty with instructions; I do not normally help with the content itself.

After the test

The tests are marked and returned as quickly as possible (within a week) so that we can discuss specific points while the test is still fresh in the students' minds. Usually I will go through the answers in class, but fairly briskly; points that seem to produce special problems I note for more leisurely re-presentation and further practice in the future. I do not usually ask students to copy out corrected answers: this is, I think, more tedious than helpful for them. It is better and more interesting to provide the practice in the same language points in other activities, using new content and tasks.


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LECTURE 6 PLANNING LESSONS

6.1 The necessity for planning

You know that teaching and learning a foreign language is ensured: 1) through methods and techniques, i. e. acquisition of new information about a linguistic or language phenomenon to acquire some knowledge; drill and transformation to form habits on the material presented; making use of the habits acquired in various language skills. The choice of techniques for realizing each of the methods is determined by the principles which govern teaching and learning this subject in schools nowadays; 2) with the help of various teaching aids and teaching materials now in use; 3) by means of different arrangements of pupils’ language learning: work in unison, mass work, work in small groups, in pairs, individual work with programmed materials and individual cards; 4) taking into consideration the stage of instruction, pupils’ age, their progress in language learning, their intellectual development, the linguistic and language material, time the teacher has at his disposal. All these points answer the question how to teach and to learn this subject.

To utilize all these points effectively systematic and careful planning is necessary.

The foreign language teacher plans all the kinds of work he is to do: he plans the essential course, the optional course (if any), and the extra-curricular work.

The first step in planning is to determine where each of his classes is in respect to achievements. It is easy for the teacher to start planning when he receives beginners.

Though the teacher does not know his pupils yet, his success will fully depend on his preparation for the lessons since pupils are usually eager to learn a foreign language in the 4th form (or the 2nd form in a specialized school). Planning is also relatively easy for the teacher who worked in these classes the previous year (or years) because he knows the achievements of his pupils in each class. He is aware of what language skills they have acquired. Planning is more difficult when the teacher receives a class (classes) from another teacher and he does not know the pupils, their proficiency in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing.

The teacher begins his planning before school opens and during the first week. He should establish the achievement level of his classes. There is a variety of ways in which this may be done. The teacher asks the previous teacher to tell him about each of the pupils. He may also look through the pupils’ test-books and the register to find out what mark each of his pupils had the previous year. The teacher may administer pre-tests, either formally or informally, to see how pupils do with them. He may also conduct an informal quizzing, asking pupils questions in the foreign language to know if they can understand them and respond properly, or he has a conversation within the topics of the previous year. After the teacher has determined the achievement level of his classes, he sketches out an outline of the year’s work. In making up his yearly outline the teacher consults the syllabus, Teacher’s Book, Pupil’s Book, and other teaching materials and sets seems to him to be realistic limits to the content to be covered during the course of the tear. In sketching out an outline of the term’s work the teacher makes a careful study of Teacher’s Book, Pupil’s Book, teaching aids and teaching materials available for this particular form. Taking into consideration the achievements of his class, he compiles a calendar plan in accordance with the time-table of a given form.


6.2 Unit planning

The teacher needs two kinds of plans to work successfully: the plan of a series of class-periods for a lesson or unit of the textbook or a unit plan, and the daily plan or the lesson plan for a particular class-period.

In compiling a unit plan, i. e., in planning the lesson of the textbook, the teacher determines the difficulties of the lesson, namely, phonetic difficulties (sounds, stress, intonation); grammar difficulties (grammar items, their character and amount), and vocabulary difficulties (the amount of new words, their character).

He then distributes these difficulties evenly over the number of class-periods allotted to the lesson in the calendar plan.

  1. The teacher starts by stating the objective or objectives of each class-period, that is, what can be achieved in a classroom lesson. Of course the long-term aims of the course help the teacher to ensure that every particular lesson is pulling in the right direction and is another step towards gaining the ultimate goals of the course. “To help the class to speak English better”, “To teach pupils to and” or “To develop pupils' proficiency in reading” cannot be the objectives of the lesson because they are too abstract to be clear to the learners. The lesson objectives should be stated as precisely as possible.

Pupils coming to the lesson should know what they are to do during the lesson, what performance level is required of them, and how it can be achieved. There are a few examples:

- Teach pupils to understand the following words … when hearing and to use them in sentences orally.

- Teach pupils to form new words with the help of the following suffixes … and to use them in the situations given.

- Teach pupils to consult a dictionary to look up the meaning of the following words ... .

- Teach pupils to recognize the international words ... when hearing (or reading).

- Teach pupils to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context while reading text " ...".

- Teach pupils to understand the statements in the Present Perfect and to use them in the following situations ... ... .

- Teach pupils to ask and answer questions in the Present Perfect and to make up dialogues following the models ... ... .

- Teach pupils to find the logical predicate in the sentences ... while reading following the structural signals.

- Teach pupils to speak about the following objects ... ... on utterance level (in a few sentences).

- Teach pupils to use the words and grammar covered in speaking about the places of interest in our town.

- Teach pupils to find topical sentences while reading text "..." silently.

- Teach pupils to get the main information while reading text "...".

The teacher can state no more than three concrete objectives for a particular class-period depending on the stage of instruction, the material of the lesson, and some other factors.

  1. The teacher distributes the linguistic material (sounds, words, grammar, etc.) throughout the class-periods according to the objectives of each period, trying to teach new vocabulary on the grammatical material familiar to pupils, and to teach a new grammar item within the vocabulary assimilated by pupils; or he first teaches pupils hearing and speaking on the new material presented, and then pupils use this in reading and writing.

  2. The teacher selects and distributes exercises for class and homework using various teaching aids and teaching materials depending on the objectives of each class-period. For example, for developing his pupils' skill in dialogic speech within the material covered the teacher needs a record with a pattern dialogue, word cards for changing the semantic meaning of the pattern dialogue to make the structure of the dialogue fit new situations.

In distributing exercises throughout the class-periods the teacher should involve his pupils in oral practice and speech, in oral and silent reading, and in writing. Exercises which are difficult for pupils should be done under the teacher's supervision, i. e., in class. Those exercises which pupils can easily perform independently are left for homework. In other words, new techniques, exercises, and skills should be practiced in class before the pupil attempts them at home. The homework done, the pupils return to class for perfecting, polishing, expanding, and varying what they have practiced at home, they learn to use the new words, the new structures in varied situations.

When the teacher determines the pupil's homework he should take into account that the subject he is teaching though important and difficult is not the only one the pupil learns at school. The realities of schools militate against more than 20-30 minutes of every day homework in a foreign language. This requires the teacher to teach in class rather than test. Practice proves that pupils do their homework provided they know exactly what to do, how it should be done, and that their work will be evaluated. Besides, pupils should know that six twenty-minutes' work at their English on consecutive days is more effective than two hours at a stretch.

The unit plan, therefore, involves everything the teacher needs for the detailed planning of a lesson (class-period), namely: the objective (objectives) of each lesson, the material to work at, and the exercises which should be done both during the class-period and at home to develop pupils’ habits and skills in the target language.

The unit plan includes nine columns:

1. The number of class-periods.

2. The objectives of each period.

3. Language material.

4 – 7. Language skills.

8. Accessories.

9. Homework.

The importance of unit plans cannot be overestimated since unit planning permits the teacher to direct the development of all language skills on the basis of the new linguistic material the lesson involves. He can lead his pupils from reception through pattern practice to creative exercises, and in this way perfect their proficiency in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. He can vary teaching aids and teaching materials within the class-periods allotted to the lesson. Unit planning allows the teacher to concentrate pupils’ attention on one or two language skills during the lesson; in this case the class hour is divided into two main parts: a period of 20—25 minutes, during which he takes his pupils through a series of structural drills or other exercises supplied by the textbook, and a period of 20—25 minutes during which the teacher engages the class in creative exercises when they use the target language as a means of communication.

The teacher should bear in mind that pupils lose all interest in a language that is presented to them by means of endless repetitions, pattern practices, substitutions, and so on, and which they cannot use in its main function of exchange of information through hearing or reading. That is why, whenever possible, the teacher should make his pupils values of his pupils aware of the immediate values of his lesson if he hopes to keep and stimulate their interest in language learning which is very important in itself. When a pupil is convinced that learning is vital, he is usually willing to work hard to acquire a good knowledge of the target language. It is well known that some pupils see little value in much of their school work in a foreign language and feel no enthusiasm for their work at the language. Careful unit planning helps the teacher to keep pupils’ progress in language learning under constant control and use teaching aids and teaching materials more effectively and, in this way, make his classes worthwhile to all of his pupils.

All this should be done by the teacher if there are no teacher’s books to the textbooks. If there are such books the teacher’s planning should deal with

(1) the study of the author’s recommendations;

(2) the development of these recommendations according to his pupils’ abilities.

The teacher tries to adapt the plan to his pupils. He may either take it as it is and strictly follow the authors’ recommendations, or he may change it a bit. For instance, if he has a group of bright pupils who can easily assimilate the material, the teacher utilizes all the exercises involved in Pupil's Book and include some additional material or stimuli pictures, objects for the pupils’ speaking within the same class-periods. If the teacher has a group of slow pupils, he needs at least one more period to cover the material, he also omits some exercises in Pupil's Book with asterisk designed for those pupils who want to have more practice in the target language. The teacher may also increase the number of oral exercises and give pupils special cards to work on individually and in pairs.

Given below are the examples of plans the teacher can find in Teacher's Book.

In Fourth Form English Teacher’s Book by A. P. Starkov, R. R. Dixon, M. D. Rybakov the material is distributed throughout the terms, and within the term – the weeks and class-periods. The plan includes nine columns:


Week

Class-period

Oral language

Reading

Writing

Phonetics

Auding

Speaking


Gram.


Vocab.


Gram.


Vocab.


Looking through the plan the teacher can see that auding is the most important skill that should be developed in pupils in this form. They can aud more than they can speak. In the first term pupils learn to aud and to speak. As far as reading and writing are concerned, pupils learn the English alphabet and English penmanship.

The plan in Ninth Form English Teacher’s Book is:


Week

Class-periods

Class work

Home work

Grammar at teacher’s discretion

Auding

Speaking

Reading

Revision of topic

New topic

Exercises

Newspaper

Exercises

Text

Writing


The plan manifests the importance of planning pupils’ work in the classroom and at home. The teacher can see that in the classroom he should develop pupils speaking, and auding skills. As to reading, pupils develop this skill at home reading various texts and performing oral and written exercises connected with the texts. The teacher can also see what topics should be reviewed and what topics are new for his pupils. He can also find a new column in the plan “Newspaper reading”. It means pupils should be taught to work with this type of texts. There is a column in the plan dealing with grammar. Pupils should review grammar in a certain system.

The teacher therefore thoroughly studies the plans in Teacher’s Books and adapts them to his pupils.


6.3 Planning a class period

The unit plan completed the teacher may move into planning a class-period or a daily plan which, in addition to what has been determined by the unit plan, indicates the ways the teacher will follow to organize his class to work during he lesson. Therefore the daily plan includes

(1) what should be achieved during this particular lesson;

(2) what material is used for achieving the objectives;

(3) how the objectives should be achieved.

Since almost every teacher has several classes of one level he usually makes preparations for each level although, ideally, a separate plan is needed for each class because classes proceed at different speed, thus he must make adaptations in his plans to compensate for varying speeds of progress in the classes of the same level.

The teacher should write his daily plans if he strives for effective and reasonable use of time allotted to his pupils’ learning a foreign language. However some teachers, including novice teachers, do not prepare written plans. They claim that they can teach “off the top of their heads”, and they really can, but their teaching usually results in poor pupils’ language skills because in this case we have, “teacher-dominated” classes when the teacher works hard during the lesson while his pupils remain mere “observers” of the procedure. Indeed, when the teacher is standing in front of pupils he does not have much time to think how to organize his pupils’ activity. This should be done before the lesson for the teacher to be able to stimulate and direct pupils’ learning the language.

We may state that the effectiveness of pupils’ desired learning is fully dependent on the teacher’s preparation for the lessons. If the teacher is talking, reading, and writing a great deal himself during the lesson, he is not ready for it. And vice versa, if the teacher gets his pupils to talk or read with communicative assignments while he listens, or to write while he moves about the class, giving a helping hand to everyone who needs it, he has thoroughly thought over the plan of the lesson beforehand. Therefore we may conclude: to provide necessary conditions for pupils’ learning a foreign language, the teacher should thoroughly plan their work during the lesson which is possible if he writes his daily plan in advance.

There are teachers who strictly follow the textbook and accept plans that others have made for them without any changing. In doing this they overlook the unique capacities of their particular classes. They race through the textbook covering the ground regardless of whether pupils master each section.

Some experienced teachers assume that the content of foreign language teaching is constant and as they have worked for many years they do not need daily plans; they have them in their minds. In reality, however, the content changes continuously as well as the methods and techniques of teaching. Moreover, the old plans which are in their minds may not suit the needs of a particular class, since each group of pupils is unique, or they may no longer be applicable because better and more effective teaching aids and teaching materials have appeared. Consequently, proceeding from these considerations the teacher needs a daily plan to provide a high level of language learning of his pupils.

To involve all pupils in the work done in the classroom the teacher should compile a kind of scenario in which every pupil has his role, while the teacher only stimulates and directs his pupils’ role-playing. In any case, a workable form for a daily plan should state the objectives, specify the activities, include evaluation techniques, indicate the assignment, and determine teaching aids and teaching materials. The plan itself should

(1) be brief, but with sufficient detail to be precise;

(2) assign a definite number of minutes to each activity;

(3) indicate exactly what words, phrases, facts, items are to be learnt and how;

(4) make use of a variety of classroom activity for every pupil.

In the organization and conduct of a foreign language lesson there is always a wide range of possibilities. No two teachers will treat the same topic in the same way. There are, however, certain basic principles of teaching and learning which should be observed:

  1. Every lesson should begin with a greeting in the foreign language and a brief talk between the teacher and the pupils. Through this conversation the lesson may be motivated. The conversation may take place between:

Teacher — Class

Teacher — Pupil on duty

Pupil on duty — Class

Two Pupils on duty

The foreign language should be used for all common classroom activities; the teacher manages the class activities by giving directions in the foreign language. He stimulates pupils’ participation by asking questions, praises and encourages pupils from time to time, and he may also criticize the behavior of a pupil or a class if necessary.

  1. There should be a variety of activities at every lesson, including pronunciation drill, oral activities, reading, and writing. The success of activity is measured by attention, enthusiasm, and involvement on the part of the pupils.

  2. The lesson should be conducted at a high speed when oral drill exercises are performed. Pupils should not stand up to say a word, a phrase, or a sentence.

  3. The lesson should provide a certain sequence in pupils’ assimilating language material and developing habits and skills from perception, comprehension, and memorizing, through the usage in a similar situation following a model, to the usage of the material received in new situations that require thinking on the part of the learner.

  4. The lesson should provide time, for the activity of every pupil in the class. They must be active participants of the procedure and not the teacher as is often the case when the teacher talks more than all the pupils.

  5. The lesson should provide conditions for pupils to learn. “Language is a skill so it must be learnt, it cannot be taught” (M. West). A certain amount of time should be devoted to seatwork as opposed to activities involving the class as a whole. During seatwork and other forms of solitary study pupils learn to learn for themselves. The use of language laboratories, teaching machines, and programmed instruction creates conditions for each pupil to learn for himself.

  6. The work done during the lesson should prepare pupils for their independent work at home. It is generally accepted as good practice not to assign exercises that have not been covered in class; this especially refers to early stages of language learning.

  7. The lesson should be well equipped with teaching aids and teaching materials which allow the teacher to create natural situations for developing pupils’ hearing and speaking skills in a foreign language.

In Teacher’s Book the teacher can find daily plans which differ greatly in form from conventional plans. For example, the author A. P. Starkov and his coauthors do not determine the objectives of each class-period and the points of the lesson (session) in a traditional way when the object of planning was rather teacher’s work than pupils’ activity. They plan pupils’ work for each particular class-period. Pupils should pass through a number of “steps”, each designed for forming a particular habit or involving them in a certain language activity. Since there are a lot of habits and skills to be formed and developed in pupils, a daily plan comprises a great number of “steps”.


REFERENCES

. 1. Jeremy Harmer. The Practice of English Language Teaching – Longmаn, 2001

2. Penny Ur. A Course in Language Teaching – Cambridge University Press, 1996

3. Marianne Celce – Murсia, Editor. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language – Boston, Massachusetts, 1991

4. G.V.Rogova, Methods of Teaching English – M.: Просвещение, 1983

5. Р.П.Мильруд. Методика преподавания английского языка. English Teaching Methodology – М.: Дрофа, 2005


4 СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ПРАКТИЧЕСКИХ ЗАНЯТИЙ


4.1 Планы практических занятий


  1. Innovative approaches

1.1 Approach, method and technique

1.2 Pre-communication methods.

1.2 Comprehension-based approaches

1.3 Production-based learning

1.4 Humanistic and psychosuggestive approaches

1.5 Communicative approach

1.6 Communicative competence

1.7 Communication strategies

1.8 Non-verbal means of communication

1.9 Communicative techniques

1.10 The three-phase framework

2. Teaching aids

2.1 Syllabuses and curriculum

2.2 Common characteristics of a syllabus

2.3 How necessary is a course book?

2.4 Educational Technology and Other Teaching Equipment

3. Techniques for classroom interaction

3.1 Presentations and explanations

3.2 Guidelines on giving effective explanations and instructions

3.3 Practice Activities

3.4 Characteristics of effective language practice

3.5 Different ways of class organization

3.6 Interaction Patterns

3.7 Questioning

3.8 Group work

3.9 Group-work organization

3.10 Individualization

4. Focusing on language

4.1 Teaching pronunciation

4.2 How to teach pronunciation

4.3 Teaching vocabulary

4.4 Vocabulary: what should be taught

4.5 Stages in teaching vocabulary

4.6 Teaching grammar

4.7 How to teach grammar

4.8 Types of exercises for the assimilation of grammar


5. Receptive and productive skills

5.1 Teaching listening

5.2 Techniques the teacher uses to develop listening skills

5.3 Types of listening activities

5.4 Teaching speaking

5.5 Characteristics of a successful speaking activity

5.6 Speech and oral exercises

5.7 Teaching reading

5.8 Reading activities

5.9 Teaching writing

5.10 How to teach writing


6. Tests and testing

6.1 Correction and feedback

6.2 Types of tests

6.3 The characteristics of tests

6.4 Stages in testing

6.5 Teaching the test

6.6 Public exams


7. Practical lesson management

7.1 The shape of a lesson

7.2 Lesson preparation

7.3 Varying lesson components

7.4 Ordering components

7.5 Practical lesson management

7.6 Criteria for evaluating lesson effectiveness


4.2 Проблемные ситуации для обсуждения на практическихзанятиях


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