«Интернет»




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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

Уфимский колледж статистики, информатики и вычислительной техники


Internet(Интернет)

учебно-методическое пособие


Английский язык


по дисциплине Английский язык


для студентов 3 курсов специальностей

230105 «Программное обеспечение вычислительной техники и автоматизированных систем»

230101 «Вычислительные машины, комплексные системы и сети»

230106 «Техническое обслуживание средств вычислительной техники и компьютерных сетей»

230103 «автоматизированные системы обработки информации и управления (по отраслям)»


2011



Ящук, О.И.

Internet (интернет): учеб.-метод. пособие /

О.И. Ящук. – Уфа: Минитипография УКСИВТ, 2010.-27 с.


Учебно – методическое пособие «Internet» (интернет) предназначено для углубленного изучения и усвоения основных понятий и терминов по теме «Интернет». Пособие содержит текст, разнообразные лексические упражнения, тесты для контроля знаний, позволяющие развивать умения и навыки чтения и перевода технических текстов.

Пособие содержит так - же толковый словарь технических терминов и аббревиатур, связанных с темой «Интернет»

УДК 811.11

Я 99


©ФГОУ СПО «Уфимский колледж статистики

Информатики и вычислительной техники» .


Содержание

Пояснительная записка 4

Введение 5

Глобальная сеть 7

Язык электронной почты 11

Интернет услуги 16

Тест контроля знаний 20

Глоссарий компьютерных терминов 23

Список литературы 27


Пояснительная записка.


Учебно-методическое пособие по теме «Интернет» разработано с целью помочь студентам в овладении навыками технического английского языка. Пособие составлено с учетом рабочей программы изучения лексико-грамматического курса по специальностям: 230105 «Программное обеспечение и вычислительных систем», 230101 «Вычислительные машины, комплексные системы и сети», 230103 «Автоматизированные системы обработки информации и управления(по отраслям)» по дисциплине «Английский язык». Пособие предназначено для студентов очной формы обучения учреждений среднего профессионального образования.

Пособие содержит:

  • Технические термины и их дефиниции;

  • Тематические тексты, дающие представление о сети Интернет, его сервисах, системах поиска и т.д;

  • Упражнения на закрепление лексики, развитие навыков перевода;

  • Тесты для контроля знаний;

  • Тематический словарь;

Учебно-методическое пособие по теме «Интернет» разработано на основе материалов интернет-сайтов, а так же пособие «Information Technology» Eric H.Glendininning изд. Oxford, «English for Computer Science Students» Т.В Смирнова, «English for PC Users» Е.В Тольцова.


Text 1

Introduction.


The Internet (commonly called the Net) is the connection of networks across the world. Different services are made available on the Internet including:

Email (electronic mail)

Sending and receiving text messages.

User (user network)

Accessing newsgroups (groups of users who send and read messages on a particular topic).

IRC (Internet relay chat)

Chatting to other users using text messages in real-time (immediately, while users are logged on to the system).

FTP (file transfer protocol)

Copying files e.g. Program files, between computers on a network. Copying files from a server computer to a client computer is known as downloading and copying from a client to a server is uploading.

Telnet (telephone network)

Logging on (connecting to a network system account, normally using a password) to your local server from across a network communications system at a distance e.g. From another country


.

MOOs (multy-user domain that is obgect-oriented)

Taking part in simulations in a shared environment. Each person assumes a persona and communicates using text messages.


WWW (the World Wide Web, commonly referred to as the Web)

Browsing (moving from webpage to webpage) linked documents known as webpages.


Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is a term used to describe systems that allow users to communicate using a computer network.

Write down the new words from the text:

CMC

email

FTP

IRC

ISP

MOOs

telnet

Usenet

WWW

Browsing

webpages

Logging on

uploading

downloading

real-time

newsgroups


TEXT 2

SURFING THE NET

What is more impressive than the pyramids, more beautiful than Michelangelo's David and more important to mankind than the wondrous inventions of the Industrial Revolution? To the converted, there can be only one answer: the Internet that undisciplined radical electronic communications network that is shaping our
universe! Multimedia, the electronic publishing revolution, is entering every area of our lives — college, work and home. This new digital technology combines texts, video, sound and graphics to produce interactive language learning, football, music, movies, cookery and anything else you might be interested in. The industrial age has matured into the information age; wherein the means to access, manipulate, and use information has become crucial to success and power. The electronic superhighway provides an entry to libraries, research institutions, databases, art galleries, census bureaus, etc. For those of us interested in intercultural communications Cyberspace is a universal community, with instant
access not only to information anywhere, but also to friends old
and new around the globe.

The Internet is an amorphous global network of thousands of linked computers that pass information back and forth. While the Internet has no government, no owners, no time, no place, no country, it definitely has a culture, which frequently approaches anarchy; and it has a language, which is more or less English. People who interact in an Internet environment know how addresses are formed, how to use e-mail, ftp, Usenet News, Telnet, and other software tools.

Like all new worlds, Cyberspace has its own lingo, for example: e-bahn,i-way, online, freenet, web page, freeware, browser, gopher, archie, gateway. There are words to describe people who roam the net: netters, e-surfers, internet surfers, netizens, spiders, geeks... The Internet has its own prerogatives: for example, the dismissive term iurker for the person who hangs around the net, reading what is there but not contributing anything. The term flaming refers to the public humiliation of another netter as punishment for a real or imagined transgression against net culture.

Large-scale use of computer-to-computer transfer of information was implemented by the US military in the late 60s and early 70s — part of the superpower competition of the cold war and the arms race. The US military created an electronic network (Arpanet) to use computers for handling the transfer of large amounts of sensitive data over long distances at incredible speed. Computer-to-computer virtual connections, using satellites and fiber optics, have distinct advantages over telephone or radio communications in the event of a nuclear attack. Mathematicians and scientists (and their universities) have been linked and electronically exchanging information over the Internet since the mid-70s.

Now the Internet has become commercialized with private and public companies offering access to it. (CompuServe is the best known international commercial electronic access provider). The Internet is being expanded and improved so that every home, every school, every institution can be linked to share data, information, music, video and other resources. If you have a computer
or a computer terminal, some kind of connection (probably, modem and telephone line) to the Internet, and some kind of Internet service provider, you can participate in electronic communication and become a citizen of the global village.


Information technology is a good vehicle for the argument. Some scientists remind us that voluminous information does not necessarily lead to sound thinking. There are many genuine dangers that computers bring to modern society: efficient invasion of privacy, overreliance on polling in politics, even abdication of control over military decision-making. Data glut obscures basic questions of justice and purpose and may even hinder rather than enhance our productivity. Edutainment software and computer games degrade the literacy of children. On the other hand, only a few use PCs on network to share information and ideas. In most cases IT is used to speed routine tasks, to automate manual processes rather than to change work patterns and business practices. Most managers use their PCs to edit documents — not a good use of their time when they could be dreaming up creative applications. It is time to evaluate anew the role of science and technology in the affairs of the human species.

So, if you are riding on the information highway, you should take steps to cope with information overload. The gift of boundless information is causing a new kind of stress known alternately as technostress, information overload or Information Fatigue Syndrome. Some experts say that we don't get anywhere near the data it takes to overload our neurons. According to some estimates, our mind as capable of processing and analyzing many gigabytes of data per second — a lot more data than any of today's supercomputers can process and act on in real time. We feel overloaded by the quantity of information because we are getting it unfiltered. We should filter out the junk and turn data into shapes that make sense to us. Stress in moderation is good: it drives us to achieve, stimulates our creativity and is the force behind social and technological breakthroughs. Stress is revealing how humans are in some ways more primitive than the technology they have created. Meditation, muscular relaxation, aerobics, jogging, yoga can be effective stress relievers, but no technique is universal: experiment and find the one that best works for you.

The cornerstone of an economy are land, labor, capital and entrepreneurial spirit. That traditional definition is now being challenged. Today you find a fifth key economic element: information dominant. As we evolve from an industrial to an information society, our jobs are changing from physical to mental labor. Just as people moved physically from farms to factories in the Industrial age, so today people are shifting muscle power to brain power in a new, computer-based, globally linked by the Internet society.


1. Explain the buzzwords in the text.

2. Define the following terms:

e.g. Buffer — an area of storage used to temporarily hold data being

transferred from one device to another.

e-mail, byte, browser, zoom, bug, cursor, buffer, download, gateway, drive, router, hypertext, protocol, graphics, modem, freenet.

3. What do these abbreviations stand for:

DT, DP, VDU, 16K, AI, IT, CPU, RB, RZ, i/o.

4. What do these acronyms stand for:

CAD, CAM, ROM, RAM, CDI, UN, Y2K, ALGOL, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN.

5. Translate some computer terms:

Simple terms: anchor, wizard, versioning, relink, cipher, containment. Compounds: clipboard, multithreaded, client-pull, design-time, run* time, polyline, turnkey, bitmapping, bandwidth.

Term collocations: frame-based layout, active template library, active server pages, asynchronous moniker, active data objects, connectable ob­ject, frequently asked question, hypertext markup language, hypertext transfer protocol, integrated development environment, interface definition language, Internet service provider, object linking and embedding, remote procedure call, software development kit, uniform data transfer.

6. Put the proper words into sentences:

multimedia, dominant, spider, netizen, flame, writing, foolproof, technostress, zoom.

1. Please, don't... me if you disagree with this.

2. The person who develops a ... lock for computer data wilt make a fortune.

3. ... a person or computer program that searches the web for new links and link them to search engines.

4. ... spends an excessive amount of time on the Internet.

5. Windows and Unix operating systems are going to be on the desk­tops and on servers in ... numbers (B. Gates).

  1. Hit a video button and ... for a closer look.

7. ...different types of visual devices: texts, pictures,
sounds animations, speech.

8. Each person handles ... differently.

9. Good ... on the Net tends to be clear, vigorous, witty and above all brief: short paragraphs, bulleted lists, one-liners — the units of thought.


TEXT 3

THE LANGUAGE OF E-MAIL

E-mail is the simplest and most immediate function of the Internet for many people. Run through a list of questions that new e-mail users ask most and some snappy answers to them.

What is electronic mail? Electronic mail, or e-mail as it's normally shortened to, is just a message that is composed, sent and read electronically (hence the name). With regular mail you write out your message (letter, postcard, whatever) and drop it off at the post office. The postal service then delivers the message and the recipient reads it. E-mail operates basically the same-way except that everything happens electronically. You compose your message

using e-mail software, send it over the lines that connect the Internet's networks and the recipient uses an e-mail program to read the message.

How does e-mail know how to get where it's going? Everybody who's connected to the Internet is assigned a unique e-mail address. In a way, this address is a lot like the address of your house or apartment because it tells everyone else your exact location on the Net. So anyone who wants to send you an e-mail message just tells the e-mail program the appropriate address and runs the Send command. The Internet takes over from there and makes sure the missive arrives safely.

What's this netiquette stuff I keep hearing about? The Net is a huge, unwieldy mass with no " powers-that-be" that can dictate content or standards. This is, for the most part, a good thing because it means there's no censorship and no one can wield authority arbitrarily. To prevent this organized chaos from descending into mere anarchy, however, a set of guidelines has been put together over the years. These guidelines are known collectively as netiquette (network etiquette) and they offer suggestions on the correct way to interact with the Internet's denizens. To give you a taste of netiquette, here are some highlights to consider.

  • Keep your message brief and to the point and make sure you clear up any spelling slips or grammatical gaffes before shipping it out.

  • Make sure the Subject lines of your message are detailed enough so they explain what your message is all about.

  • Don't SHOUT by writing your missives entirely in uppercase letters.

  • Don't bother other people by sending them test messages. If you must test a program, send a message to yourself.

What's a flame? The vast majority of e-mail correspondence is civil and courteous, but with millions of participants all over the world, it's inevitable that some folks will rub each other the wrong way. When this happens, the combatants may exchange emotionally charged, caustic, often obscene messages called flames. When enough of these messages exchange hands, an out-and-out flame war develops. These usually burn themselves out after a while, and then the participants can get back to more interesting things.

Is e-mail secure? In a word, no. The Net's open architecture allows programmers to write interesting and useful new Internet services, but it also allows unscrupulous snoops to lurk where they don't belong. In particular, the e-mail system has two problems: it's not that hard for someone else to read your e-mail, and it's fairly easy to forge an e-mail address. If security is a must for you, then you'll want to create an industrial strength password for your home directory, use encryption for your most sensitive messages, and use an anonymous remailer when you want to send something incognito.

I. Answer the questions:

1. What major problems are there with the e-mail? Are they opinions or facts? Would it be a problem for you?

2.What do you think is the reason for the various bits of netiquette which are mentioned?

3. Find at least 5 examples of a very colloquial and chatty style used in the text. Why are they used?

4. For which of the following types of writing is it necessary to be brief?

Instructions, love letters, news reports, business proposals, faxes, ad­verts, insurance claims, curriculum vitae, short stories, scientific reports, e-mail, poems.

5. Write a summary of the text. Include only the information, ignore any extra remarks. Write in a neutral rather than an informal style.

II. E-mailers also keep their message brief by abbreviating frequently used phrases. Complete these common phrases:

AAMOF as a m... off...

AFAIK as f... as I k...

FYI for your i...

FYA f... y... am...

IMO in my o...

IOW in o... words

NRN not r... necessary

TTYL talk to y... 1.1

FAQ f... a... question(s)

BTW byt...w...

LOL la... o... loud

KHYF k... ho... y... fe...

IMHOS in my h... o...

WYSIWYG what y... see is w... y... g...

RTFM read the f... m...

III. E-mail messages usually have the following format:

To: (Name and e-mail address of recipient)

From: (Name and e-mail address of sender)

Subject: (Identification of main point of message)

Here Is an example of an e-mail address:

smith@cup.ac.uk

Note that the symbol # in e-mail address is read at and that the full stops are read as dot. Thus the example address would be read as Smith at C- U Ш P dot A - С dot U — K.

The ac.uk in the example address tells you that the address is based at a university in the United Kingdom.

Do you know anyone with an e-mail address? If so, dictate it to other students in the class. If not, then your teacher will give you some addresses for dictation.


IV. E-mailers make use of symbols called smileys (or emoticons) which can be written using standard letters and signs.


:-) Your basic smiley. This is used to mean I’m happy.

;-) Winking smiley. I’m flirting or being ironic.

;-( Frowning smiley. Idid not like something.

:-| I’m indifferent.

8-) I wear glasses.

:-{) I have a moustache.

:-~) I have a cold.

C=:^ Head cook, chef-de-cuisine.

Q:^) Soldier, man with beret, boy scout.

*:O Clown the lips; very tasty or delicious.


/VVV\/V\0:>~ Snake (or to rake someone over the coals) V. Match these smileys to their meanings listed below:

%-) (-: I :-Q :-@ :-D <:-| (:) [:-)

1.I'm a dunce.

2.I'm an egghead.

3.I'm asleep.

4.I'm laughing.

5. I'm left-handed.

  1. I'm screaming.

  2. I'm wearing a Walkman.

  3. I'm sticking my tongue out at you.

  4. I've been staring at this screen for too long.


VI. Write an e-mail message to your friend (on paper). Use an appropriate format and a chatty style. Try to use at least one smiley and some abbreviations.

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