Учебно-методический комплекс направление подготовки специалиста: 031200 (620100) Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация специальность: 031202. 65 ( 022900) Перевод и переводоведение санкт-петербург




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НазваниеУчебно-методический комплекс направление подготовки специалиста: 031200 (620100) Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация специальность: 031202. 65 ( 022900) Перевод и переводоведение санкт-петербург
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Varieties of English




term

foreign word poetism professionalism

barbarism archaism 

neologism  

  

written----------literary----------formal----------polite----------tactful

:: :: :: :: ::

:: :: :: :: ::

:: :: :: :: ::

spoken---------colloquial--------informal-------familiar---------rude

  

dialectism  

slang 

jargonism

vulgarism


appropriate geographical communication Common Core literal familiar construction native

the Caribbean AM.E. BR.E. pronunciation

vocabulary multilingual WSE regional dialect tend hesitate “hesitation fillers” “er”; “um” occur listing, adding explanations e.g.; i.e. participial verbless clause punctuation

“weeds” unlinked reduction ellipsis

colloquial advertisement impersonal passives introductory abstract senior vocative nickname slang restricted intimacy

tactful tentative diplomacy disguise imperative request indication reluctance

commit literary elevated rhetorical limited solemnity Inaugural related signify stylized emphatic emotive

interpret usage neutral bookish

archaism recreation barbarism violation

derivation inflection narrated local colouring

convey true-to-life effect narration parody

poetism high-level word expressive neologism

nonce-word occasional word laconism implication

satire offensive rhyming slang argot

professionalism longing vulgarism uncultivated

humiliate addressee evaluation object in question jargonism unintelligible dialectism peculiar


Types of Meaning


image interrelation concrete notion(al)

denotative connotative verbal extra-linguistic

isolated concept property objective

loading notional connotation vary emotional indicate stylistic component

isolation contextual correlation frequent

interjection intonation reiteration function

evaluative imply imagery intensifying

imaginative association linguistic functional fiction publicistic similarity concept

Stylistic Devices



phonetic onomatopoeia alliteration representation

imitate succession similar lexical

interaction primary imposed metaphor

trite genuine personification metonymy synecdoche irony resemblance indicate implicit comparison substitute vice versa discrepancy sarcasm opposite primary derivative pun zeugma humorous simultaneous realization epithet transferred oxymoron adjective descriptive emphasis

attribute contradiction define intensification

phenomenon simile periphrasis euphemism

hyperbole connective explicit overstatement

exaggeration set-expressions phraseological unit allusion

idiom proverb (ial) saying cliché

reference fictitious nominal antonomasia

allegory understatement litotes paradox

proper name continuous equivalent akin

symbolism parable fable presuppose

double negation contradictory self-evident absurd

represented syntactical inversion parallel(ism) construction repetition reiteration suspense

climax asyndeton polysyndeton antithesis

ellipsis represented speech rhetorical question violation

S-Pr-O-D alter pattern rhythmical

paragraph extract anaphora anadiplosis

clause apiphora chiasmus reversal

structure successive chain synonymic

delay loading utterance completion

increasing tension conclusion arrangement

secure gradual increase significance quantitative

conjunction enumeration preposition antonym

contrastive omission imitate predetermine

reflect excitement render utter

reveal psychology temporary mental state

abound exclamatory elliptical break

stream-of-consciousness-technique stenograph boundary


Types of Foregrounding


emphasis foreground prominence convergence

strong position defeated expectancy coupling contrast

establish hierarchy composition aesthetic response

involvement protect message guess accumulation

intensive coordination single out artistic whole

prominent title epigraph first lines

closure provide a clue borrowed self-explanatory

focus complicated generalized demand

observation previous partial depict

prologue detached introduction quotation motto generalize comment epigrammatic

key-symbol structure sequence high-degree

termination distinguish mear stopping finality

confirm experience perception extra(ir)regularity

predictability disturb disorientation delineated

bitter irony semantically relevant equivalent (ce)

rhythm aphorism half-line rhyming

morphological integrated (integrity) (non-) poetical graphical

punctuation segmentation print/type plot

mechanics self-conscious a work of art producer


Functional Styles


patterned variety typification media calculate

secure predetermine evolve distinguishable

belles-letters verse emotive prose substyle

aesthetico-cognitive interpretation in essence semantics

epigram-like prosody meter iambic _ _/

trochaic _/_ dactylic _/_ _ amphibrachic _ _/_ anapestic _ _ _/

syllable foot stanza heroic couplet

Spencerian Octava rima ballad Shakespearean

sonnet monologue dialogue conform

fragmentation exclude playwright’s remarks two-way

gesture mimicry reverse connection polysemantic

regional peculiarity gender coinage nonce-word

notion implication explication quantity

lingual means indistinctness articulation contraction

“graphon” “Ah-de-do” “Wasser-matter” dropping morpheme

confusing neutral superfluous amount

affective rich stock tempo curt remark

multiple direct doubling diminutive suffix hypothesis

de-terminization ambiguity postulatory argumentative

formulative investigation quotation reference

appendix foot-note exact sciences humanities

announcement crossword puzzle brief news item matter-of-fact

abbreviation syntactical complex attribute noun-group (non-) classified

headline catching sensational declarative

interrogative Editorial publicistic oratorical

essay journalistic individuality brevity

audience debate counsel judge

ready-made obligatory Montaigne surface

key-note documantory legal diplomacy

military bind undertaking enterprise

contracting nomenclature conventional M.P.; $; Ltd.

atk; obj; A\T compositional design memorandum(a) subcode

conventionality emotiveness encoded pronouncement


Приложение II

Упражнения к семинарам I-IV


Семинар I. Literary Stratum of Words


I. State the archaisms, characterize and translate them:

1. I was surprised to see Heathcliff there also. He stood by the fire, his back towards me, just finishing a stormy scene to poor Zillah, who ever and anon interrupted her labour to pluck up the corner of her apron, and heave an indignant groan... “Thou art the Man!” cried Jabes, after a solemn pause, leaning over his cushion. “Seventy times seven times didst thou gapingly contort thy visage – seventy times seven did I take council with my soul – Lo! This is human weakness: this also may be absolved! The first of the seventy-first is come. Brethren – execute upon him the judgement written. Such honour have all His saints!”

2. He kept looking at the fantastic green of the jungle and then at the orange-brown earth, febrile and pulsing as though the rain were cutting wounds into it. Ridges flinched before the power of it. The Lord giveth and He taketh away, Ridges thought...

3. If manners maketh man, then manner and grooming maketh poodle.


II. Give the English equivalents, state the origin and stylistic purpose of barbarisms and foreign words:

1. Yates remained serious. “We have time, Herr Zippmann, to try your schnapps. Are there any German troops in Neustadt? “No, Herr Offizier, that’s just what I’ve to tell you. This morning, four gentlemen in all, we went out of Neustadt to meet the Herren Amerikaner.”

2. “I never sent any telegram. What did it say?” “I believe it is still on the table là-bas.” Elise retired, pounced upon it, and brought it to her mistress in triumph. “Voilà, madame!”

3. Nevertheless, despite her experience, she hadn’t yet reached the stage of thinking all men beastly; though she could readily sympathize with the state of mind of any woman driven to utter that particular cri de coeur.

4. “Tyree, you got half of the profits!” Dr. Bruce shouted. “You’re my de facto partner.”

5. The first shock was over, the dust had settled and he could now see that his whole life was kaput.


III. State the nature and role of the terms:

1. “... don’t you go to him for anything more serious than a pendectomy of the left ear or a strabismus of the cardiograph.” No one save Kennicott knew exactly what this meant, but they laughed.

2. At noon the hooter and everything died. First, the pulley driving the punch and shears and emery wheels stopped its lick and slap. Simultaneously the compressor providing the blast for a dozen smith-fires went dead. Finally old Peter was left standing dead struck – as if it had never happened to him before, as if he wasn’t an old miser for work – specifically, piece-work, always trying to knock the extra piece before the power went.

3. They met, and their hands instinctively clasped by an interadjustment of the bones known only in mankind and the higher apes but not seen in the dog...

Philip drew the girl’s form towards him till he had it close to his own form, and parallel to it, both remaining perpendicular, and then bending the upper verterbrae of his spinal column forwards and sideways he introduced his face into a close proximity with hers. In this attitude, difficult to sustain for a prolonged period, he brought his upper and lower lips together, protruded them forward, and placed them softly against hers in a movement seen also in the orang-outang but never in the hippopotamus.


IV. Define the pattern of creation of the following neologisms:

1. She was a young and unbeautiful woman.

2. She was doing duty of her waitresshood.

3. Every man in his hours of success, tasted godhood.

4. His youngness and singlemindedness were obvious enough.

5. She was a fragile eyeful...

6. His father installed justly to make little boys feel littler and stupid boys aware of their stupidity.

7. “I love you mucher.” – “Plenty mucher? Me tooer.”

8. It was the killingest thing you ever saw.

9. You’re goddamndest boy.

10. I’ve been asked to appear in Rostand’s wonderful fairy play. Wouldn’t it be nice if you Englished it for us?

11. The country became his Stepfatherland.

12. A luxury hotel for dogs is to be opened at Lima, Peru, a city of 30,000 dogs. The furry guests will have separate hygienic kennels, top medical care and high standard cuisine, including the best bones. Also on hand at the dogotel – trees.

V. Compare the neutral and the literary modes of expression:

1. “My children, my defrauded, swindled infants!” cried Mrs. Renwigs.

2. “I am Alpha and Omega, – the first and the last,” the solemn voice would announce.

3. Twenty miles west of Tueson the “Sunset Express” stopped at a tank to take on water. Besides the aqueous addition the engine of that famous flyer acquired some other things that were not good for it.

4. He is always in extremes; perpetually in the superlative degree.

5. The famous Alderman who objected to the phrase in Canning’s inscription for a Pitt memorial “He died poor” and wished to substitute “He expired in indigent circumstances”.


Семинар II. Colloquial Stratum of Words


I. State the function of slang:

1. A cove couldn’t be too careful.

2. I’ve often thought you’d make a corking good actress.

3. I steered him into a side street where it was dark and propped him against a wall and gave him a frisk.

4. Bejees, if you think you can play me for an easy mark, you’ve come to the wrong house. No one ever played Harry Hope for a sucker!

5. This is a dump. This is unbelievable. But the kid don’t know how to live even when she’s got the dough.

6. She came in one night, plastered, with a sun-burned man, also plastered...

7. “That guy just aint hep,” Mazzi said decisively. “He’s as unhep as a box, I can’t stand people who aint hep.”

8. I’m the first one saw her. Out at Santa Anita she’s hanging around the track every day. I’m interested: professionally. I find out she’s some jock’s regular, she’s living with the shrimp, I get the jock told Drop it if he don’t want conversation with the vice boys: see, the kid’s fifteen. But stylish: she’s okay, she comes across. Even when she’s wearing glasses this thick; even when she opens her mouth and you don’t know if she’s a hillbilly or an Okie or what, I still don’t. My guess, nobody’ll ever know where she came from.


II. Specify hackneyed vulgarisms and vulgarisms proper; determine the kind of emotion which had caused their usage:

1. A hyena crossed the open on his way around the hill. “That bastard crosses there every night,” the man said.

2. Suddenly Percy snatched the letter. “Give it back to me, you rotten devil,” Peter shouted. “You know damn well it doesn’t say that. I’ll kick your big fat belly. I swear I will.”

3. Look at the son of a bitch down there: pretending he’s one of the boys today.

4. “This is the very devil of a business. The very devil of a business.”

5. I’m no damned fool! I couldn’t go on believing forever that gang was going to change the world by shooting off their loud traps on soapboxes and sneaking around blowing up a lousy building or a bridge! I got wise, it was all a crazy pipe dream!


III. Differentiate the professional and social jargonisms; suggest a terminological equivalent where possible:

1. They have graduated from Ohio State together, himself with an engineering degree.

2. The arrangement was to keep in tough by runners and by walkie-talkie.

3. We did History Final at Coll a long time ago.

4. I’m here quite often – taking patients to hospitals for majors, and so on.

5. “Okay Top,” he said. “You know I never argue with the First Sergeant.”

6. “There’s a house-party,” said Dinny to the young man’s elevated eyebrows. “She means tails and a white tie.” – “Oh, oh! Best bib and tucker!”

7. “How long did they cook you?” – “Since eight this morning. Over twelve hours...” – “You didn’t unbutton then? After twelve hours of it?” – “Me? They got a lot of dancing to do before they’ll get anything out of me.”

8. But, after all, he knows I’m preggers.


IV. Observe the dialectal peculiarities in the dialogues:

1. “By the way, Inspector, did you check up that story of Freguson’s?” “Ferguson?” said the Inspector, in the resentful accents of a schoolboy burdened with too much homework. “Oo, ay, we havena forgot Ferguson. I went tae Sparkes of them remembered him weel enough. The lad doonstairs in the show-room couldna speak with cairtainty tae the time, but he recognized Ferguson from his photograph, as havin’ brocht in a magneto on the Monday afternoon...”

2. “We’ll show Levenford what my clever lass can do. I’m looking ahead, and I cam see it. When we’ve made ye the head scholar of Academy, then you’ll see what your father means to do wi’ you. But ye must stick to your lessons, stick in hard.”

3. I wad na been surpris’d to spy

You on an auld wife’s flainen toy:

Or aiblins some bit duddie boy,

On’s wyliecoat.


V. Compare the neutral (or literary) and colloquial modes of expression:

1. Get on a little faster, put a little more steam on.

2. “Negroes and children: who cares?” – “I read that story twice: brats and niggers.”

3. He tried these engineers, but no soap. No answer.

4. “I do think the Scandinavian are the heartiest and best people.” – “Oh, do you think so?” protested she. “My husband says the Svenskas that work in the planning-mill are perfectly terrible.”

5. “Big-Hearted Harry. You want to know what I think? I think you’re nuts. Pure plain crazy. Goofy as a loon. That’s what I think.”

6. “Here she is,” said Quilip... there is the women I ought to have married – there is the beautiful Sarah – there is the female who has all the charms of her sex and none of their weakness. Oh, Sally, Sally.”

7. I need the stimulation of good company. He terms this riff-raff. The plain fact is I am misunderstood.

8. “Give me some ham, piping hot, fragrant with brown sugar and tasty sauce. Serve it between fresh slices of buttered bread. And draw a cup of aromatic coffee with cream that is rich and pure.” The girl gave him a frigid glance and cried to the kitchen. “Pig on rye and java with.”
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