Учебно-методический комплекс направление подготовки специалиста: 031200 (620100) Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация специальность: 031202. 65 ( 022900) Перевод и переводоведение санкт-петербург




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НазваниеУчебно-методический комплекс направление подготовки специалиста: 031200 (620100) Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация специальность: 031202. 65 ( 022900) Перевод и переводоведение санкт-петербург
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CONTRACT №_______

________________________________________________________________

hereinafter referred to as the Sellers, on the one part, and VOP, Moscow, hereinafter referred to as the Buyers, on the other part, have concluded the present Contract as follows:


1. SUBJECT OF THE CONTRACT

The Sellers have sold and the Buyers have bought on ___________________

terms the goods in accordance with the Specifications attached to the present Contract and forming integral part thereof.


2. PRICE AND TOTAL AMOUNT OF THE CONTRACT

Prices for the goods are fixed in ___________________________ and to be

understood___________ including the cost of packing and marking.

The total amount of the present Contract comprises____________________


3. TIME AND DATE OF DELIVERY

The goods are to be delivered in the time stipulated in the Specifications attached to the present Contract.

The date of __________________________is to be considered as the date of delivery.

Delivery before the time stipulated in the Contract as well as partial delivery of the goods without accessories is not allowed without the Buyers' consent.


4. QUALITY

The quality of the goods is to be in conformity with the re­quirements given in the Specifications attached to the Contract.

The goods are to be of the latest design and manufactured of the first grade materials. The Sellers on their own initiative but at the Buyers' consent or request are to make improvements of the design and the materials of which the goods are made taking into account the latest technical achievements in this field without any extra charges or postponement of the delivery time.

The quality of the goods is to be evidenced by a Certificate of Quality issued by the manufacturing works, or by a Letter of Guarantee of the Sellers.


­5. PACKING AND MARKING

Packing should protect the cargo from any damage, corrosion and shortage during transportation by all kinds of transport involving several transhipments en route. A definite kind of pac­king may be indicated in the Specifications to the Contract.

Each case is to contain a Packing List indicating the deno­mination of the goods and spare parts, Contract №, Trans №, Case №, Item № as per the Specification, Series № Net gross weight. Packing Lists are to be inserted in each case in a waterproof envelope.

The Sellers are to submit for the Buyers’ approval overall sketches of the equipment. The size, weight and the centre of gra­vity of the case are to be indicated on each sketch.

The following marking is to be made in waterproof black pain­t on each case in Russian and English:

Top

With Care

Do not turn over

V/O

Contract №

Trans №

Case №

Gross weight... kg

Net weight... kg

Size of case (length, width, height in cm).

When delivering complete equipment, the case № is to be given in fraction, in which the numerator is the ordinal № of case and the denominator – the total number of cases.

The Sellers are to bear responsibility for all eventual losses and/or damages caused by inadequate or unsuitable packing and marking.


Текст 5


KANSALLIS BANK ADVISES STILL NO L/C NUMBER.

IT IS NOT ACCEPTABLE TO US TO WAIT YET ANOTHER WEEK.

HAVING ORDERED EQUIPMENT, WE CANNOT CANCEL OR POSTPONE

DELIVERY.

WE ALSO CANNOT LEAVE MANUFACTURERS WITHOUT RELIABLE

INFORMATION.

WE REPEAT OUR REQUEST FOR L/C NUMBER BY RETURN FAX.

PLEASE REPLY TO THIS URGENTLY.

SECOND L/C USD...

WE SENT YOU OUR INSTRUCTIONS BY FAX OF APRIL 1TH.

PLEASE CONFIRM YOU ARE PROCEEDING TO OPEN THIS CREDIT

PROMPTLY AS WELL.

SO WE WILL NOT FURTHER DISTURB OUR RELATIONS WITH

MANUFACTURERS.

PLEASE UNDERSTAND, THE MONEY SITUATION WAS DISCUSSED AT OUR LAST MEETING AND WE HAVE FOR OUR PART PROCEEDED BASED ON YOUR ASSURANCES THAT FUNDS ARE AVAILABLE AND L/C OPENINGS WOULD PROCEED NORMALLY.

BEST REGARDS.


НАУЧНЫЙ СТИЛЬ


Текст 1


In the days when standards of sanitation and general cleanliness were not what they are now, houses, churches and public buildings had sweet-smelling herbs, including Mints, Lavender, Hyssop, Tansy, Sweet flag, Balm and Sage, strewn about in their floors to freshen the air. People carried pomanders and nosegays to combat everyday evil smells and believed that they warded off infections and plague.

Nowadays sweet-smelling herbs are less necessary, but it is enjoyable to prepare pot pourri and herb cushions to scent our linen and clothes and to deter moths. Every garden must contain a few suitable plants, such as Roses, Sweet peas, Carnations, Lavender, Sage and many more can be easily obtained or gathered from the wild. Large stores often have a counter selling dried lavender, rose petals and mixtures of herbs, but it is more rewarding to grow your own.

Pot pourri and herb bags can be made from almost any sweet-smelling herbs and it is interesting to experiment with your own mixtures. It is best to stick to the same general recipe.

Flowers and herbs can be collected for pot pourri at any time of the year. Flowers should be gathered in the morning when the dew has lifted and the flowers have just opened, this ensures the maximum volatile oil content...


Текст 2

Rembrandt


Rembrandt, the outstanding genius of the Dutch school of painting in the 17th century, was born at Leiden in 1606. His father was a miller, while his mother was the daughter of a baker.

In 1620 Rembrandt entered the University of Leiden, but he did not stay there long. So in 1624 he went to Amsterdam and became a pupil of the historical painter Pieter Lastman. He had a strong desire to become a painter.

So far Rembrandt has been considered as a painter of classical and biblical themes, but already in this early period a large proportion of his work consisted of portraits and studies of single figures and he was making his first experiments in etching, a medium in which he was later to achieve great results. The sitters for the portrait studies were members of his own family. These are not portraits in its fashionable sense, but studies in character, expression and lighting that he used in his subject pictures.

The means by which he became a great painter as well as his early success was due to his own industry.

In 1634 he married Saskia van Uylenburgh. In his art as well as in his life it was a period of growth and expansion.

In the Self-Portrait with Saskia on His Knee Rembrandt is seated at a richly garnished table, one hand raising a drinking glass, while the other clasps the waist of Saskia, who sits oh his knees.

During this period his colouring grew warmer, with brown and golden tones predominating. In giving expressions to figures and faces, and in the management of light and shade, few painters have equalled him.

In 1632 he painted his first big portrait – Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Tulp. This picture reveals the inherent drama of the moment, trying at the same time to convey the humane and compassionate motives.

From 1636 Rembrandt produced a small number of landscapes, most of them on panel and small in size.

The celebrated picture known as the Night Watch, which was completed in 1642, may be regarded as a culminating masterpiece of this decade of successes.

Saskia died in 1642, and a series of misfortunes overtook Rembrandt.

In 1656 he was declared bankrupt and had moved into a humble lodging in a poorer quarter of the city. He died in 1669.


Текст 3


Some scientists believe that the main cause for the warming is the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, whose concentration has been increasing primarily because of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. However, in recent years, increasing concentration of other greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC3), has collectively been shown to have an effect equal to CO2. Moreover, a particular CFC (CFC-12) absorbs in the region of the atmospheric window between 8 and 11 m. Thus, in terms of its absorption impact on infrared radiation, the addition of a single CFC-12 molecule to the atmosphere is equivalent to adding 10,000 molecules of CO2.

Presently, the concentration of carbon dioxide in a volume of air near the surface is about 0.035 percent. Some computer models predict that doubling this amount will cause the earth's average surface temperature to rise between about 20 and 50 C. How can doubling such a small quantity of CO2 and adding miniscule amounts of other greenhouse gases bring about such a large temperature increase?

Mathematical climate models predict that rising ocean temperatures will cause an increase in evaporation rates. The added water vapor – the primary greenhouse gas – will enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and double the temperature rise, in what is known as a positive feedback. But there are other feedbacks to consider.


Текст 4

Synonyms


Does he wear a turban, a fez or a hat?

Does he sleep on a mattress, a bed or a mat, or a Cot,

The Akond of Swat?

Can he write a letter concisely clear,

Without a speck or a smudge or smear or Blot,

The Akond of Swat?

(Edward Lear, “The Akond of Swat”)

There are not only words that sound the same but have different meanings; there are also words that sound different but have the same or nearly the same meaning. Such words are called synonyms. There are dictionaries of synonyms that contain many hundreds of entries, such as:

apathetic/phlegmatic/passive/sluggish/indifferent

pedigree/ancestry/genealogy/descent/lineage

A sign in the San Diego Zoo Wild Animal Park states: “Please do not annoy, torment, pester, plague, molest, worry, badger, harry, harass, heckle, persecute, irk, bullyrag, vex, disquiet, grate, beset, bother, tease, nettle, tantalize, or ruffle the animals”.

It has been said that there are no perfect synonyms – that is, no two words ever have exactly the same meaning. Still, the following pair of sentences have very similar meanings.

He’s sitting on the sofa./ He’s sitting on the couch.

Some individuals may prefer to use sofa instead of couch, but if they know the two words, they will understand both sentences and interpret them to mean essentially the same thing. The degree of semantic similarity between words depends to a great extent on the number of semantic properties they share. Sofa and couch refer to the same type of object and share most of their semantic properties.

There are words that are neither synonyms nor near synonyms yet have many semantic properties in common. Man and boy both refer to male humans; the meaning of boy includes the additional semantic property of “youth,” whereby it differs from the meaning of man.

A polysemous word may share one of its meanings with another word, a kind of partial synonymy. For example mature and ripe are polysemous words that are synonyms when applied to fruit, but not when applied to (smelly) animals. Deep and profound mean the same when applied to thought, but only deep can modify water.

Sometimes words that are ordinarily opposites can mean the same thing in certain contexts; thus a good scare is the same as a bad scare. Similarly, a word with a positive meaning in one form, such as the adjective perfect, when used adverbially, undergoes a “weakening” effect, so that “perfectly good bicycle” is neither perfect nor always good. “Perfectly good” means something more like “adequate.”


Текст 5

Electricity into Heat


Electric bulb. Electric current is a flow of free elec­trons through a wire. Electric wire is made of copper and electrons easily pass through it.

But if they come to a different metal whose conducti­vity is not so good as that of copper, they bump against the atoms of the metal. The friction arising from the bumping makes the metal very hot.

This happens in electric stoves and irons where the wire is made of nichrome. The nichrome becomes very hot when electricity flows through it. The metal covering protecting the nichrome from dirt becomes hot too and cooks the food or warms the room.

In an electric bulb, a very fine filament of wire made of tungsten is used. As the current flows, the electrons bump into the tungsten atoms, and become hot. The hot­ter they become, the quicker they move and bump, and become hotter still, until the wire begins to glow. The glow is the result of the electrons bumping about and causing little sparks, which we see as light. The electrons do not burn up or melt the wire, although it is very thin, because there is no oxygen in the bulb, so things cannot burn in it.

Fluorescent light. A fluorescent lamp gives a bright­er light than an ordinary electric lamp because it makes the electricity into light, without much wasteful heat.

The tubes of fluorescent light are filled with mercury gas. The gas gives off an invisible radiation when elec­tricity flows through it. The glass of the tube is painted inside with spe­cial chemical material (phosphors). They have the power to glow when the invisible radiation reaches them and the light they give is very bright.

The tubes in a television set work in the same way as the fluorescent light tubes. But the electricity com­ing to them is not steady, as it is in the light tubes. It flickers because it depends partly on the radio waves coming from the television station and also on delicate, complicated parts of the tubes.

As the current moves about, it causes the phosphors to glow in different places of the tube, so that you get the black and white of the picture.


ГАЗЕТНЫЙ СТИЛЬ


Текст 1


TOKYO. Yoshihiro Hattori, a 16-year-old Japanese exchange student from Nagoya, and his friend Web Haymaker, also 16, were out to have a good time last week, little suspecting that their evening would end in tragedy. The two boys had been invited to a Halloween party in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Yoshihiro had dressed up in a white jacket, mimicking John Travolta in the old disco film, Saturday Night Fever. It was Saturday night.

Yoshihiro had not been in the US for long, and his command of English was not very good, but he had become good friends with Web, with whose family he was stay­ing. At about 7.30 p.m., the boys knocked on the front door of the house where they thought the party was being held. There was no answer, so they went around to the garage door and knocked again. A woman appeared and looked startled. The boys stood there. Then the woman’s husband, Rodney Peairs, came out with a 44 magnum revolver and told the boys to “freeze”. Web did so, but Yoshihiro, not understanding and apparently thinking it was part of a joke, stepped forward and asked, “Where's the party?” Mr. Peairs shot him in the chest, killing him almost instant­ly. The party was several doors down the street.

The tragedy was cruelly ironic, as one of Yoshihiro's relatives said later: “Yoshihiro came to learn cultural differences, and it seems these cultural differences killed him”.

The neighbourhood in Baton Rouge had been plagued with crime, and the Peairs family kept a gun for self-defence. Private ownership of firearms in Japan is forbidden, so Yoshihiro would not have realised the deadly seriousness of the man with the gun. Nor did he understand “freeze” as a command not to move.

But after the initial shock of the boy’s death, the reaction in Japan was revealing. The story was covered extensively by Japanese media, but the tone was of gen­uine concern for how such a tragedy could happen in the US. There was none of the racist animosity that has criss-crossed the Pacific recently, from American and Japanese political figures seeking to chalk up points at home.


Текст 2


Starting point

Shop until you drop and then sit back and relax with a winter warmer in a restaurant or cocktail bar and congratulate yourself on your purchases. Christmas is definitely one of the most exciting times of the year in London, so make the most of the festive season and have fun!

Christmas Shopping in London

Harrods, Selfridges, Hamleys, John Lewis, Lillywhites, Burberrys – the list is endless. Whether you decide to haunt Oxford Street, Regent Street, Bond Street or Knightsbidge or even do them all, we'll point you in the right direction for all your gift buying.

Pizza Pasta and All Things Italian

Italian restaurants gave London its first taste of Continental cuisine in the 1960s. The world has never loved Italian food quite so much as now, and there have never been so many different Italian restaurants in London in which to enjoy it.

Winter Warmers

Lots of places to keep warm this winter – shows and exhibitions, restaurants, high tech attractions, cosy and welcoming pubs and wine bars.

London Entertains

Treat yourself to a show during the Christmas season – there’s just so much to choose from – traditional pantomimes, musicals, ballet and dance, opera and the always popular long running productions.

Dance – of course you can

Dance the night away in style with our guide to the best of the capital’s clubs – visit London’s hottest night spots.

Royal Round Up

Make sure you soak up a little of the pomp and of London’s royal past and present with a visit to a palace or two – the major royal venues are listed here. See also the re-opening of the magnificent Albert Memorial.

The Charms of Glasgow & Edinburgh

Surely no trip to the UK is complete without a trip to Scotland for Hogmanay (New Year). Two of Scotland’s most vibrant cities offer spectacular scenery, exciting night life and a rich cultural experience.

Essential London

Whatever’s happening in London during Christmas and New year, you’ll find it in the Welcome to London guide to events – don’t miss the best museums and galleries, parks and gardens, exciting attractions, tours of the city and the best places to eat and drink. There is also a special section on Christmas shows. You’ll also find there travel information, tube map, embassy numbers, currency exchange information, emergency and travel numbers and much more. Check out Ingrid Tarrant’s personal shopping guide


Текст 3
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