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Philip: I say, I haven’t been to the pictures for a long time and I feel like seeing anything put out for our entertainment. How about seeing a new film?
Paul: I’m afraid, I can’t keep you company. I don’t go to the pictures much, but when I do, I like to see something decent.
Philip: But what do you mean by a decent film? And how do you know whether it is decent or rotten?
Paul: Well, you read about it in the adverts or posters first, and then you know from your own experience that if so-and-so is in it, it’s likely to be good.
Philip: You know that many fans like to give their impressions straight from the shoulder, especially those full of biting criticism.
Paul: But a decent film appeals to different people in different ways. It makes you think and in addition to this, a decent film by all-round consent, is one you can believe in, whether it’s funny, tragic or tense. When there is a decent film showing, everybody praises it.
Mr. Brown: Which did you like the better?
David: It’s hard to say. They’d spent a lot of money on the film and it was very well done. There must have been hundreds of people in it – crowds of people and soldiers and servants. The film moved fast with plenty of things happening all the time. I enjoyed the music and the colour – these were splendid and the photography was very good indeed, but ...
Mr. Brown: But what?
David: Well, something had gone. You didn't notice Shakespeare’s words, which are so important in the theatre. And the main characters and what they did and thought didn’t seem so clear or stand out as they do in the theatre.
Types of Legal Professions
SOLICITORS. There are about 50,000 solicitors, a number which is rapidly increasing, and they make up by far the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales. They are found in every town, where they deal with all the day-today work of preparing legal documents for buying and selling houses, making wills, etc. Solicitors also work on court cases for their clients, prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts, and may represent their client in a Magistrates’ court.
BARRISTERS. There are about 5,000 barristers who defend or prosecute in the higher courts. Although solicitors and barristers work together on cases, barristers specialize in representing clients in court and training and career structures for the two types of lawyer and quite separate. In court, barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping with the extreme formality of the proceedings. The highest level of barristers has the title QC [Queen’s Counsel].
JUDGES. There are a few hundred judges, trained as barristers, who preside in more serious cases. There is no separate training for judges.
JURY. A jury consists of twelve people (“jurors”), who are ordinary people chosen at random from the Electoral Register [the list of people who can vote in elections]. The jury listens to the evidence given in court in certain criminal cases and decide whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the person is found guilty, the punishment is passed by the presiding judge. Juries are rarely used in civil cases.
MAGISTRATES. There are about 30,000 magistrates (Justices of the Peace or JPs), who judge cases in the lower courts. They are usually unpaid and have no formal legal qualifications, but they are respectable people who are given some training.
CORONERS. Coroners have medical or legal training (or both), and inquire into violent or unnatural deaths.
The Swords of Temporal Justice, Spiritual Justice and Mercy (the Curtana) early 17th century. These three swords represent types that have been used in the coronation ceremony since the Middle Ages.
St. Edward’s Staff, 1661. Made of gold with a steel spike at its end, it is 56” (142 cm) in length and weighs 55 oz 19 dwt (1.74 kg).
State Trumpets, 1780-1848. The trumpet banners are embroidered with gold, silver and silk threads and silk and metal cords. The national emblems of England, Scotland and Ireland (roses, thistles and shamrocks) are embroidered in each corner.
The Coronation Spoon, 12th century. George IV much admired the Coronation Spoon and had two copies made of it set with precious stones.
The Sovereign’s Sceptre with Cross, 1661, is set with 393 gemstones including the First Star of Africa (Cullinan I), the world’s largest cut diamond.
The Imperial State Crown, 1937. Made for the coronation of George IV, the Imperial State Crown is almost a replica of Queen Victoria’s State Crown of 1838. It is set with 2,868 diamonds, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds, 5 rubies and 273 pearls. The crown is 12.4” (31.5 cm) in height and, excluding the wire frame, cap of estate and ermine band, weighs 32 oz 7 dwt (1.06 kg).
Pair of Altar Candlesticks, c.1661. These large silver-gilt candlesticks measure some 37” in height and together weigh 408 oz 7 dwt (12.79 kg).
The Gospel According to Matthew
1.18. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows:
After His mother Mary was betrothed to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Spirit.
l9. Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not wanting to make her a public example, was minded to put her away secretly.
20. But while he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take to you Mary your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit.
21. And she will bring forth a Son and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins”.
22. So all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying:
23. “Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel”, which is translated “God with us”.
24. Then Joseph, being aroused from sleep, did as the angel of the Lord commanded him and took to him his wife, and did not know her till she brought forth her first-born Son. And he called His name Jesus.
2.1. Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem,
2. saying, “Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him”.
3. When Herod the king heard this, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.
4. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he inquired of them where the Christ was to be born.
5. So they said to him, “In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written by the prophet:
6. But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah,
Are not the least among the rulers of Judah;
For out of you shall come a Ruler
Who will shepherd My people Israel”.
7. Then Herod, when he had secretly called the wise men, determined from them what time the star appeared.
8. And he sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and search carefully for the young Child, and when you have found Him, bring back word to me, that I may come and worship Him also”.
9. When they heard the king, they departed; and behold, the star which they had seen in the East went before them, till it came and stood over where the young Child was.
10. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy.
11. And when they had come into the house, they saw the young Child with Mary His mother, and fell down and worshiped Him. And when they had opened their treasures, they presented gifts to Him: gold, frankincense and myrrh.
12. Then, being divinely warned in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed for their own country another way.
ear-training. The training of students of linguistics to identify by ear the full range of sounds that the human vocal tract can produce.
ease of articulation. See principle of least effort: cf. euphony.
East Germanic = Gothic.
‘echolalia’. Mechanical repetition of the words just uttered by another speaker, when symptomatic of a speech or other mental disorder.
echo question. A form such as ‘You've bought ‘WHAT?’’, partly echoing a statement such as ‘I’ve bought a concrete mixer’.
echo-word. A compound whose second member repeats the first with an initial consonant or syllable altered. Widespread in languages of the Indian subcontinent, with the general meaning ‘... and the like’: e.g. ‘water and such like’, by a systematic process in which an initial consonant is changed to V.
ECM = exceptional case marking.
ECP. See empty category.
effected object. The *object of a verb which denotes an action, etc. that brings things or individuals into existence: e.g. a book in I wrote a book, where the book would exist as the effect of the speaker writing it. Opp. affected object.
Efik. Native to the area of Calabar but used more widely as a literary language in south-east Nigeria. The Cross River languages, of which Efik and Ibibio are the most important, are grouped with many others under *Benue-Congo.
EFL. Abbreviation for ‘English as a foreign language’.
egocentrism. Property of language in being centred on the ‘here’ and ‘now’ of the individual 'I' (Latin ‘ego’) who is speaking. Fundamental, in particular, to *deixis.
egressive. (Air stream, *airstream mechanism) in which the direction of flow is outwards. Opp. ingressive.
Laws of Babylon
One of the most detailed ancient legal codes was drawn up in about 1758 B.C. by Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia. The entire code, consisting of 282 paragraphs, was carved into a great stone pillar, which was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk so that it could be read by every citizen.
The pillar, lost for centuries after the fall of Babylon in the 16th century B.C., was rediscovered by a French archaeologist in 1901 amid the ruins of the Persian city of Susa. Hammurabi’s words were still legible. The pillar is now in the Louvre museum in Paris.
The laws laid down by Hammurabi were more extensive than any that had gone before. They covered crime, divorce and marriage, the rights of slave owners and slaves, the settlement of debts, inheritance and property contracts; there were even regulations about taxes and the prices of goods.
Punishments under the code were often harsh. Not only murderers but also thieves and false accusers faced the death penalty. And a child who hit his father could expect to lose the hand that struck the blow.
Nevertheless, Hammurabi’s laws represented an advance on earlier tribal customs, because the penalty could not be forfeit for an eye.
The code outlawed private blood feuds and banned the tradition by which a man could kidnap and keep the woman he wanted for his bride. In addition, the new laws took account of the circumstances of the offender as well as of the offence. So a lower-ranking citizen who lost a civil case would be fined less than an aristocrat in the same position – though he would also be awarded less if he won.
I) Dear Edward,
I am delighted to tell you that I have just become engaged.
My bride is Mary Stephens, whom I do not think you have yet met, but I am sure you will think I am very lucky when you do meet her.
We are only having a short engagement, and an invitation to the wedding will reach you very soon. I do hope you will be able to come.
Yours sincerely, Tom
2) Dear Tom,
Hearty congratulations on your marriage. I wish I could have been at your wedding, but I have just arrived back in England. I am sure that you are very lucky, and I look forward to meeting your wife soon.
I am very pleased to know that you have decided to get married, and I do wish you and your wife the very best of good luck in the many years together which I hope will be yours.
With every good wish,
3) Dear Allan,
I should be very pleased if you would come to tea with me next Thursday at 4 o’clock.
Yours sincerely, Cecily
4) Dear Mrs. Smith,
Thank you ever so much for your kind invitation to dinner on Saturday 5th November. I shall be delighted to come.
5) Dear Mrs. Fisher,
This is to thank you once again for the memorable evening we had the pleasure of spending at your house. We thoroughly enjoyed it.
Jessie and Robert Troy
6) Dear Thomas,
I was shocked at the news of your father’s death. Please accept my very sincere condolences in your bereavement. You are constantly in our thoughts.
A Whiter Shade of Pale
We skipped the light fandango
turned cartwheels ’cross the floor
I was feeling kinda seasick
but the crowd called out for more
The room was humming harder
as the ceiling flew away
When we called out for another drink
the waiter brought a tray
And so it was that later
as the miller told his tale
that her face, at first just ghostly,
turned a whiter shade of pale
She said, “There is no reason
and the truth is plain to see.”
But I wandered through my playing cards
and would not let her be
one of sixteen vestal virgins
who were leaving for the coast
and although my eyes were open
they might have just as well’ve been closed
She said, “I’m home on shore leave,”
though in truth we were at sea
so I took her by the looking glass
and forced her to agree
saying, “You must be the mermaid
who took Neptune for a ride.”
But she smiled at me so sadly
that my anger straightway died
If music be the food of love
then laughter is its queen
and likewise if behind is in front
then dirt in truth is clean
My mouth by then like cardboard
seemed to slip straight through my head
So we crash-dived straightway quickly
and attacked the ocean bed
Итоговый тест по стилистике английского языка
“No warmth – no cheerfulness, no healful ease,
No comfortable feel in any member!
No shade, no shine, no butterflies, no bees,
No fruits, no flowers, no leaves, no birds,
Инновационные методы обучения
в курсе «Стилистика»
Большую роль в процессе обучения стилистике имеет эвристическая беседа-лекция, в ходе которой преподаватель, опираясь на имеющиеся у студентов знания и практический опыт, подводит их к пониманию и усвоению новых знаний, формулированию правил и выводов. Применение беседы-лекции как метода обучения позволяет значительно активизировать познавательную деятельность студентов, вовлечь их в самостоятельные поиски дополнительной научной информации для решения проблемных учебно-познавательных задач, выполнения тематических заданий, проведения самостоятельных научных исследований.
Ещё одним эффективным методом обучения стилистике является метод «лекции с путеводителем». Каждый студент, пришедший на лекцию, получает «путеводитель» по лекции – вокабулярные листы, на которых отображена структура изложения содержания лекции. Чтобы избежать бесполезного ввиду спада внимания присутствия на лекции, студентам также предлагается метод «лекции с паузами». Суть его заключается в том, чтобы в течение трёх минут обсудить прослушанный материал, обменяться мнениями, прояснить недопонятые моменты.
Другим эффективным методом обучения стилистике является семинар-дискуссия, который основан не на заучивании имеющейся информации, а на обмене взглядами по определённой теме или проблеме, причём эти взгляды отражают собственное мнение участников дискуссии или опираются на мнения других лиц. Этот метод целесообразно использовать в том случае, когда студенты обладают значительной степенью зрелости и самостоятельности мышления, умеют аргументировать, доказывать и обосновывать свою точку зрения. Хорошо проведённый семинар-дискуссия имеет большую обучающую и воспитательную ценность: он учит более глубокому пониманию темы или проблемы, умению защищать свою позицию, считаться с мнениями других.
Пояснительная записка 3
Учебно-тематический план 4
Содержание курса 5
Семинарские занятия 8
Самостоятельная работа 9
Вопросы к экзамену 9
Приложение I. Вокабуляр к лекциям 13
Приложение II. Упражнения к семинарам 1–4 17
Приложение III. Тексты к семинарам 5–7 25
Приложение IV. Итоговый тест по стилистике английского языка 56
Приложение V. Инновационные методы обучения в курсе «Стилистика» 58
Санкт-Петербург, Литейный пр., 42
Подписано к печати 02.11.2010 г. Тираж 50 экз.
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