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3. Basic functional styles of the modern studied language. Functional stylistics, dealing with all the subdivisions of the language and all its possible usages, is the most all – embracing “global” trend in style study, and such specified stylistics as the scientific prose study, or newspaper style study, or the like are elaborations of certain fields of functional stylistics.
In terms of information theory the author’ stylistics may be named the stylistics of the encoder: the language being viewed as the code (of) to shape the information into the message, and the supplier of the information, respectively, as the encoder. The addresser in this case plays the part of the decoder of the information contained in the message, and the problems connected with adequate reception of the message without any informational losses or deformations, i.e. with adequate decoding, are the concern of decoding stylistics.
And, finally, the stylistics, proceeding from the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors, publishers, writers, journalists, teachers, etc.) is called practical stylistics.
Lexical stylistics corresponds to the lexical level of a language. At studies the stylistic functions of lexics and regards the interrelation of direct and indirect meanings. Lexical stylistics as well as stylistics of literature study and linguistic stylistics studies different components of contextual meanings of words, and especially their expressive, emotional and estimative potential and their relation to different functional – stylistic strata. Dialectical words, terms, slang words, colloquial words and expressions, neologisms, archaisms, foreign words etc. are studied from the point of view of their interrelations with different conditions of the context. Descriptive synchronic lexicology takes its usage not only in stylistics, but also in historical lexicology, especially, when some authors use the old meanings of words and then the etymological information may help the full disclosure (opening) of expressiveness of the text. Lexical stylistics may also study the expressive potential of some word formation models, of some types of abbreviations, models of word composition. Each branch of lexicology may give very useful information for stylistics. An important role in stylistic analysis plays the discussion of phraseological units and proverbs. Grammatical stylistics is subdivided into the morphological and syntactic.
Morphological stylistics regards the stylistic possibilities of different grammatical categories peculiar to this or that parts of speech. This branch of stylistics is beginning to be elaborated in the English language.
Syntactic stylistics investigates expressive possibilities of the word order, types of sentences, types of syntactic ties. This branch has its century traditions and rich literature. An important place have the so-called figures of speech – syntactic, stylistic or rhetoric figures, i.e. specific syntactic constructions giving the additional expressiveness to speech.
Phonostylistics or phonetic stylistics includes all notions of sound organization of rhymes and proses: rhythm, alliteration, sound interchange in connection with the problem of the content of sound forms, i.e. the presence of stylistic functions. Dealing with (different) various cases of phonemic and graphemic foregrounding we should not forget the unilateral nature of a phoneme: this language unit helps to differentiate meaningful lexemes but has no meaning of its own. Devoid of denotation and connotation meaning a phoneme, according to recent studies has a strong associative and sound – instrumenting power. Well – known are numerous cases of onomatopoeia – the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object or action, such as “hiss”, “murmur”, “bump”, “grumble”, “sizzle” and many more. The phonemic structure of the word proves to be important for the creation of expressive and emotive connotations. Poetry abounds in some specific types of sound-instrumenting , the leading role belonging to alliteration – the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words, and assonance – the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables. They both may produce the effect of euphony (a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing) or cacophony (a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing). As an example of the first may serve the famous lines of E.A. Poe:
…silken sand uncertain
rustling of each purple curtain…
An example of second is provided by the unspeakable combination of sounds found in R. Browning:
Nor soul helps flesh now
More than flesh helps soul.
In contemporary advertizing, mass media and, above all, creative prose sound is fore-grounded mainly though the change of its accepted graphical representation. This violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation is called graphon. Graphons, indicating irregularities or carelessness on pronunciation were occasionally introduced into English novel and journalism as early as the beginning of the eighteenth century and since then have acquired an ever growing frequency of usage, popularity among writers, journalists, advertizers, and a continuously widening scope of functions. The use of information theory in the questions of linguistics, poetry, stylistics and aesthetics for the last two decades are constantly growing. This science includes all branches of knowledge: the humanitarian and natural sciences and intensively developing communicative linguistics. It is necessary to stress that notions and terms of information theory are widely used in the works on stylistics and poetry both in our country and abroad. Let’s name some of the scholars who actively use them in their works: I.R. Galperin, V.A. Kukharenko, V.N. Komissarov, Y.S. Stepanov and others. The value of nations of information theory for humanitarian sciences is in the fact that they can(not) afford to see general features in these phenomena. The use of information theory in the questions of linguistics, poetry, stylistics and aesthetics are constantly growing for the last two decades.
The information theory was first suggested by K.Shennon. Let’s turn to the term “information” itself. We have got used to understand information as some sums of information. In its modern understanding “information” is the internal content of the process of reflection of peculiarities of one objects of reality as the type changing peculiarities of other objects. It means that information is the track left by one phenomenon on the other. Transformation and getting of information is based on the important peculiarity of the material reflection.
System “author-book-reader” is regarded by the authors who are engaged in the problems of information as the system of transformation of information. It is necessary to mark that Shennon was interested in transformation of information of another type (non-semantic) and his scheme of communication suits our situation too (L.V. Arnold).
Code is the system of knowledge and rules of their connection for transformation of information on the definite canal. The natural language is the main, but not the only code of literature. Other codes play primarily additional role and are transformed in literature through language code: such as, e.g. codes of traditions and ethics, codes of other types of art. Time process reflecting message is called “signal”. In fiction “signal” is embodied in difficult interconnections of phonetic, lexical, morphological, syntactic and graphic language means and takes place in the process of reading and comprehension a short rhyme (poem), sonnet e.g. may be richer in information and call the more strong reaction than a large novel.
Message is the unity of reflected in the regarded period of time of the features of source. Message for stylistics in the text of the analysed literary work or its extract of such a length which is recognized both necessary and sufficient to be aesthetically meaningful with ideological content.
Any fiction work is the result of a numerous act of choice. Singling out in continuation, i.e. in the non-abrupted function of the chosen discreet units which afford to restore the whole part of reality is called quanting. It may be done on different levels e.g. Describing in the novel “Death of a hero” the fate of one man – the young artist Yeorge Winterborn, the reader perceives the fate of all “the lost generation” on the whole (The author is P.Aldington).
Literature is the canal of transformation of information. Memory is all that information which gives the reader possibility to have it up to this given reading.
Language means which we choose for communication depend on several factors, the most important among them being the situation of communication act. Depending on the [communication ] situation [ which includes the purpose of the communication and its participants] we adhere eighths to informal, as to formal manner. The former is observed in everyday non-official communication which is known as collegial speech. It occupies a prominent pact in our lives , and is viewed by some linguistic as a system of language means so strongly differing from those presented in the formal[literary] communication that it can be classified as an independent entity with its own peculiar units and rules of their structuring.
The literary communication , most often [ but not always ] materialized in the written from ,is not homogeneous, and proceeding from its function [purpose]we speak of different functional system. as the whole e of the language it sect, functional styles are also changeable. Their quantity and quality change in the course of their development . At present most scholars differentiate such functional styles : scientific, official, publicity, newspaper, belles- letters.
The interrelation between different components of a literary text is called composition. Most novels and stories have plots. Every plot is an arrangement of meaningful events. No matter how insignificant or deceptively casual, the events of the story are meant to suggest the character’s morals and motives. Sometimes a plot follows the chorological order of events. At other times their are jumps back and forth in time [ flashback and foreshadowing]. The four structural components of the pl6t are exposition, complication, climax and denouement. Exposition contains of the story . It is usually to be found at the beginning of the story, but may also be interwoven in the narrative by means of flashbacks, so that the reader gradually comes to know the characters and events leading up to the present situation. Complication is a separate incident helping to unfold the action, and might involve thoughts and feelings as well. Climax is the decisive moment on which the fate of the characters and the final action depend. It is the point at which the forces in the conflict reach the highest intensity. Denouement means `the untying of a knot`. Wh5ch 5s precisely what happen in this phase. Some stories end right after the climax, leaving it up to the reader to judge what will be the outcome of the conflict.
The phoneme as the language unit helps to differentiate meaningful lexemes but has no meaning of its own. Devoid of denotation and co notational meaning a phoneme, according to recent studies, has a strong associative and sound- incrementing power. Cf. while unable to speak about the semantics of [ou], [ju:], we acknowledge their sense differentiating significance in `sew` [sou] - and `sew` [sju:]; or [au], [ou] in `bow` , ect. In contemporary advertising, mass media and, above all, creative prose sound is fore grounded mainly through the change of its accepted graphical representation. This international [variation] violation of the graphical shape of a word [ or word combination] used to reflect its authentic pronunciation is called graph on. Yraphons, indicating irregularities as carelessness of the 18-th century and since thebe have acquired an ever growing frequency of usage , popularity among writers , journalists, advertisers and a continuously widening scope of functions. Graphon is an effective means of supplying information about the speaker’s origin, social and educational background, physical or emotional condition , ect. So, when the famous Thackeray’s character- butler yellow plush- impresses his listeners with the learned words pronouncing them as `sellybrated` [celebrated] , illygitimit` [illegitimate], jewinile [ juvenile] or Mr Babbitt used `eytalians` [Italians ] , peepul [people]- the reader obtains not only the vivid image and the social, cultural , educational characteristics attitude to them. Yraphon is very good at convening the atmosphere of authentic live communication , of the informality of the speech act. This is phone-graphical levels. The word is a linguistic unit of maj6r significance, which names , qualifies and evaluates the micro – and macrocosm of the surrounding world. The semantic structure of the world is constit4ted of various types of lexical meanings , the major one being demonstrational, which informs of the subject of communication; and also ins3uding connotation, which inform about the participants and conditions of communication. All the words possessing an am five meaning are also find non – emotive , intellectual evolution [e.g. `good `,` bad`].
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