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The Theme: Interstylistic Differentiation: Functional Styles, Substyles, Genres, Stylistic Features of Functional Styles.
The Aim: To instill in students the habits of recognizing of stylistic features of functional styles.
All languages have certain common features, typical of the general belles- letters style , which make up the foundation of the style , by which the particular styles is made recognizable and can therefore be singled out. The common function of the three styles is called `aesthetic- cognitive`. This is a double function which aims at the cognitive process which secures the gradual unfolding of the idea to the reader and the same calls forth a feeling of pleasure. The psychological element – pleasure is not irrelevant when evaluating the effect of communication. Voting gives more pleasure and satisfaction than realizing that one has the ability to penetrate into the hidden tissue of events , phenomena and human activity , and to perceive the relation between various seemingly unconnected facts brought together by the creative mind of the writer. One of the rather widely accepted classifications which singles out the following functional styles: 1)official style, represented in all kinds of official documents and papers; 2). scientific style is found in articles, brochures , monographs and other scientific academic publications; 3.) publicist style , covering such genres as essay , feature article , most writing of `new journalism`, public speeches etc; 4) newspaper style, observed in the majority of materials printed in newspapers; 5) belles- letters style, embracing numerous and versatile genres of creative writing. It is only the first three that are inevitably recognized in all stylistic features. As to the newspaper style ,it is often regarded as part of the publicist domain and is not always treated individually. But the biggest controversy is flaming around the belles- letters style. The unlimited possibilities of creative writing which covers the whole of the unnerve and make use of all language resources led some scholars to the conviction that because of the liability of its contours it can be hardly qualified as a functional style. Still others claim that, regardless of its versatility, the belles-lettres style, in each of its concrete representations, fulfils the aesthetic function, which in fact singles out this style out of other and gives grounds to recognize its systematic uniqueness, i. e. charges it which the status of an autonomous functional style. Since the belles-lettres style has `aesthetic- cognitive` function, it follows that is has something in common with scientific style. The purpose of the belles- letters style is not to prove but only to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of five by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer. This is the cognitive function of the belles-lettres style. The belles- letters style rests on certain indispensable linguistic features which are:
The belles-letters style is individual in essence. This is one of its most distinctive properties. Linguistic stylistic peculiarity is extremely apparent in belles- letters style because it studies, as we know, the correlation of speech situation and linguistic means used by speakers, i. e. stratification according to use. Linguistic stylistics was found by Charles Bally.
1) it compares general national norm with specific characteristic for different spheres of communication subsystems called functional stylistics and dialects [lingua stylistic in this narrow sense is called functional stylistics] and
2) studies elements of the language with the viewpoint of their ability to express and to cause emotions, associations and estimates.
The first differentiating property of verse is its ordinary form , which is based mainly of the rhythmic and phonetic sub style are held by rhythmic patterns. In emotive prose the imagery is not so rich as in poetry, the percentage of words with contextual meaning is in not so high as in poetry . emotive prose is the combination of the spoken and written varieties of the language, there are always to forms of communication which present-monol6gue [ the writer’s speech ] and dialogue [ the speech of the characters]. Emotive prose as a separate from of imagery literature, that is fiction, came into being rather late in the history of the English literary language. Language of the drama excludes not direct speech but monologue. The author’s speech is almost entirely excluded expect for the playwrights remarks and stage directions. It follows that the language of the drama [ plays] is always stylized. the styl5zition of collegial language is one of the features of plays which at different stages in the history of English drama manifested itself in different ways.
The Theme Functionally- Communicative and Linguo-Stylistic Specificity of Imagery Style (prose, poetry, drama). Aesthetic Function of Imagery Style. Individual Style of the Author.
The Aim: To make students learn aesthetic function of imagery style and individual style of the author.
Work of imagery literature and other texts serving the material for stylistic analysis are the examples of individual speech which are given due to constant observation. For depicting the text and singling out its (the) peculiarities in comparison with other available text in the given language it is necessary to establish terms for comparison. To established characteristic and repeated principles of choice we must know all those forms from which the choice is made. The system of the given language on the whole and its norm are serving terms of comparison. By the norm itself we understand not only neutral literary standard but also functional styles and dialects. The system of language and its norm are not given for us in the sense of pure observation, but are singled out by means of abstraction. Using the term of modeling one can imagine the system of language as an abstract model, the norm- as a static and individual speech – as an empiric observing material. The system of a language consists of phonetic, lexical and grammatical subsystems may be regarded as structure. The system of a language defines general possibilities for usage of its elements, norm in that what really used which is adapted and understood in this given society. In order to explain the difference between the system, norm and individual speech let us address to pronouns. In the systems of the English language pronouns of the first ( place ) person singular mean the speaking person, and is contra used to pronouns of the first person plural making the speaking person and one more or several persons. According to the norm of the English language e. g. in scientific styles of speech instead of ``I`` possible to use ``we` e.g. ``As an illustration let us take the language of Euclidian geometry and algebra.` ( A. Einstein). In individual speech the doctor may say to the patient: Come , come, we mustn’t get ourself all worked up, must we ? ( J. Thurber). Literary norm of a language as E. S. Istrina writes: `` is defined by the degree of usage on conditions of authoritativeness of sources``. Composers of grammars and dictionaries in describing literary norms are retying on the material of works of fiction, scientific and publicist prose. The rightness of speech is defined by the usage of words in speech of educated native speakers but not by logic and etymologic criteria. Speech is always depended on the situation of communication. General literary standard is called the norm in the narrow sense of the word. A special branch of stylistics which studies the norm of ` the right` speech is called – normative stylistic or orthology. An essential difference of orthology from linguo-stylistics is that it marks not only variants of functioning of a language, but given the estimation of analyzed forms as `the right ` or ` non-right`. Normative stylistics or orthology studies ( is engaged in) in a special branch of stylistic studying the norm of `the right ` speech. Orthology studies also the character and volume of conscious influence on the development and functioning of a language on the side of native speaker and on the side of educational system, as for as norm in this sense is artificially supported by school. The dictionary of Fuuler is one the most numerous English works in normative stylistics. The basic orthological category is the category of variation connected with the notion that a language is always constant development and changeability due to which the elements of the old and the new are coexisting. The norm of a language reflects a typical usage of possibilities represented by a system on dependence of participants, spheres and aims of communication.
The existence of the norm`s proper presupposes the possibility of such oppositions, as: structure: norm: individual speech: common population norm: dialect: neutral style: collogual style : bookish style: literary normative speech :n common speech. Norm usually includes different subsystems of realization of structure. It points out traditional, but not necessary `right` forms, as there are exist some other norms except literary norms ( dialect and others).
Literary or imagery language is a historical category. It exists as a variety of the national language which imposes on definite morphological and stylistic norm. It allows modifications but within the frame work of the established system by the language community at every period in the development of language. We may even say that 2 norms co-exist. But one of the co-existing forms of the language will give way to rival and rather vanish form the language entirely or else remain on its outskirts. There are two conflicting tendencies in the process of establishing the norm:
1. preservation of the already existing norm, sometimes with attempts to re-establish old form of the language;
2. introduction of new norm not yet firmly established;
There is not hard division between the literary and non-literary language. They are interdependent. The literary language enriches its vocabulary. It also adopts some of its syntactical peculiarities by so doing, give them the status of norms of the literary language. Thus selection is the most typical feature of the literary language. The process of selecting and admitting lexical or morphological forms into the literary language is not a conscious effort on the part of scholars. As the national language is the creation of people as a whole, which gradually and imperceptibly take place in their speech from one generation to another, cannot fail in the long run to enter the literary language.
The belles-lettres style rests on certain indispensable linguistic features which are genuine, imagery, achieved by purely linguistic devices. In emotive prose the imagery is not so rich as in poetry. Emotive prose is the combination of the spoken and written varieties of the language. There are always two forms of communication which present – monologue ( the writer’s speech ) and dialogue ( the speech of the characters). Language of the drama excludes not direct speech but monologue. The author speech is almost entirely excluded except for playwright`s remarks and stage directions.
Aesthetic Function of Imagery Style.
The peculiarities of imagery style are connected with the peculiarities of a word and speech. Aesthetic advantage of imagery style appealing to the brains and hearts of people in its brightness and distinction of phenomena, events, persons.
Individual style of the author.
Problems, concerning the choice of language means and their organization into a message, from the viewpoint of the addresser, are the centre of attention of the individual style study, which puts particular emphasis on the study of an individual author`s style, looking for correlations between the creative concepts of the author and the language of his works.
The English literary language was particularly regulated band formalized during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The influence of the men- of- letters on this process can hardly be overestimated. Some of them, none the less, hindered thaw natural, organic process of development. Bough ( Albert C.) - a history of the English language points out that swift, for example, `in matters of language …. Was a conservative`. Byron on the other hand was very li liberal and words and phrases. Not all of them gained recognition in and stayed in the literary language ; but nevertheless they were facts of the literary language by their very nature. Take fore example the word `weatherolligy` coined by Buron. The literary language greatly influences the non-literary language/ many words, constructions and phonetic improvements have been in trod to though it into the English colloquial language. This influence had its greatest ( influence) effect in the 19-th century with the spread of general education , and in the present century with the introduction of radio and television. Computers into the daily lives of the people. The non-literary language manifests itself in all aspects of the language: phonetics, morphological, lexical and syntactical [ ai] instead of [ei] - rain instead of [ rein] the dropping of [h] and the insertion of [h] at the beginning of some words. The best way to check this of that form of non- literary English is to contrast it to the existing. Literary English is almost synonymous with the term Standard English . it is best described in an interesting book written by Randolph Quirk, Professor of the English language in the University of London, the title of which is `The use of English`. He states : ` we have seen that standard English is basically an ideal, a mode of expression that we seek when we wish to communicate beyond our immediate community with members of the wider community of the nation as a whole. As an adial, it cannot be perfectly realized and we must expect that members of different ` wider communities `` ( Britain, America, Nigeria, for example) may produce different realizations. It fact, however, the remarkable things is the very high degree of unanimity, the small amount of divergence. Any of us can read a newspaper printed in Leeds or San Francisco or Delhi without difficulty and often ever without realizing that there are differences at all. Cockney, regarded as the remnants of the London dialect, seems to growing into a generic term for any term of non-standard English in Britain, although non-standard verities of English exist in territorial variants. Standard English is an abstraction, an ideal. To use present-day term logy, standard English is kinds of variants of English both within and without Great Britain. This ideal helps to establish more or less strict norms for all aspects of the language. The publication of dictionaries does much to establish the literary language norms. and the compilers of English dictionaries are forced willy-nilly to acknowledge a variant and present it co-existing alongside the one previously recognized as solely acceptable.
4. ( a Brief Outline)
5. Verities of language.
The actual situation of the communication has evolved 2 verities of language:
The spoken and the written. The varying aims of the communication has caused the literary language to fall into a number of self-sufficient systems or styles of language. Of the 2 verifies of language diachronically the spoken is primary and the written is seconding. Eagh of these varieties has developed its own features and qualities. The spoken variety of a language has the presence of an interlocutor. The written presupposes the absence of an interlocutor. The spoken language is maintained in the form of a dialogue- the written in the form of a monologue. The spoken has a considerable advantage over the written in that the human voice comes into play. This is a powerful means of modulating the utterance, as are all kinds of gestures, which together with the intonation, give additional information. The written language has to seek means to compensate for that what it lacks. The gap between the spoken and written varieties of language, wider or narrower at deferent periods in the development of the literary language will always remain apparent due to the different in circumstances in which the two are used. Here is an example showing the difference. `Marvelous beast a fox. Great place for wild life, these wooded chins; so steep you can`t disturb them- pigeons, jays, woodpeckers, rabbits, foxes, hares, pheasants- every mortal things.`
Its written counterpart would run as follows: ` what a marvelous beast a fox is! These wooded chins are splendid place for wild life. There are so steep that one can`t disturb anything. Therefore one can see every manageable creature her- pigeons , jays, woodpeckers , rabbits, foxes, hares, and pheasants. The use of peculiarities of both variants will always produce a ludicrous effect. In this connection A.S.Pushkin wrote:
` to use the spoken language only, means not to know the language.` The spoken language its very nature is spontaneous, momentary, fleeting. It vanishes after having fulfilled its porpoise, which is to communicate a thought, no matter whether it is trivial or really important. The writer language lives together with idea it expresses. The spoken variety differs from the written language phonetically ( that is, in its written representation) morphologically, exactly and syntactically. Thus, of morphological forms as he`d, she`d, she`s (she has , she is ) and the like e.g. `I`d`ve killed him` ( Salinger). `Don`t ` rusted of `doesn`t` as in ` I wonder his father don`t take him in his bank`. `He` instead of `him`, as in `I used to play tennis with he and nirs antolini` ( Salinger).
Here are some more examples of present day collogues phrases which are gaining groun in standard English but which are strongly felt to be colloquial. How come? (= why? Who does that happen? So much the beater, to be up to something. That is why the most striking different between the spoken and written language is, however in the vocabulary used. There are words and phrases typically colloquial and typically bookish. Such words and phrases are sloppy, to be gone on somebody ( to be violently in love with) and other immediately mark the utterance as being colloquial, that is, belonging to the spoken variety of language.
The characteristic syntactical feature of the written variety of language can easily be perceived by the student of language. As the situation must be clear by the context, the utterance become more exact. That means the relation between the part of the utterance must be prices. Hence the abundance of all kinds of conjunctions, adverbial (clauses) phrases and other means which may serve as connectives. A someone said, a clear writer is always conscious of a reader aver his shoulder. He must explain. Most of the connecting word were evolved in the written language and for the most part are used only there. Such connectives as: moreover, likewise, nevertheless, on the contrary, presently, however, eventually, therefore, in connection which, hereafter, henceforth, have a bookish flavor and seldom used in ordinary conversation.
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