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РЕАЛИЗАЦИЯ МНОГОУРОВНЕВОЙ ПОДГОТОВКИ В ТЮМЕНСКОМ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОМ НЕФТЕГАЗОВОМ УНИВЕРСИТЕТЕ


С целью достижения студентами ТюмГНГУ уровня владения иностранным языком, соответствующего современным требованиям, в вузе было принято решение о создании системы многоуровневой подготовки по иностранным языкам.

Система многоуровневой подготовки начала складываться еще в 90-ые годы прошлого столетия.

Создание системы происходило поэтапно путем расширения образовательных услуг, предлагаемых студентам.

На сегодняшний день многоуровневая подготовка студентов по иностранным языкам представляет собой уже сложившуюся систему и включает следующие направления:

- Обучение студентов иностранному языку на 1-2 курсе согласно ГОС ВПО.

- Углубленное изучение иностранного языка в рамках факультатива.

- Углубленное изучение иностранного языка с применением интенсивной методики обучения.

- Модульное обучение по программе «Совершенствование языковой подготовки студентов ТюмГНГУ».

- Обучение по программе TEMPUS в рамках проекта «Обновление лингвистической политики технических вузов России».

- Обучение по программе дополнительной квалификации «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации».

Из опыта работы.

Остановимся подробнее на каждом из этих направлений.

  1. Углубленное изучение иностранного языка в рамках факультатива.

С 2002 года по заказу выпускающих кафедр МТЭК и «Технология продуктов питания» осуществляется подготовка студентов по трем иностранным языкам (английский, немецкий, французский) на 3,4 и 5 курсах с недельной нагрузкой 5-6 часов. В программу подготовки помимо профессионально-ориентированного изучения иностранного языка включены такие спецкурсы, как «Деловой иностранный язык», «Практический курс профессионально-ориентированного перевода», «Деловой этикет и ведение переговоров», «Язык деловой корреспонденции и документации».

В плане методического обеспечения языковой подготовки в рамках факультатива преподавателем кафедры Кудряшевой С.Б. подготовлено и издано учебное пособие «Catering Trade: Step 1» («Общественное питание: Шаг 1») с грифом НМС по иностранным языкам Министерства образования и науки РФ для студентов 3-4 курсов, обучающихся по специальности «Технология продуктов питания».

  1. Изучение иностранного языка с применением интенсивной методики обучения.

Обучение студентов английскому языку с применением интенсивной методики началось в 1992 году. Занятия проводились со студентами 1-2 курсов факультета технической кибернетики. Поскольку данная программа рассчитана на 12-часовую недельную нагрузку, из числа студентов 1 курса формировалась одна сборная группа частично на договорной основе.

С 1999 года подобная подготовка осуществляется со студентами экономического направления специальностей кафедры МТЭК.

Как положительный результат данной подготовки можно отметить тот факт, что за этот период около 30 выпускников получили дополнительное образование в различных американских университетах и в настоящее время работают в ведущих компаниях Америки и России.

  1. Модульное обучение по программе «Совершенствование языковой подготовки студентов ТюмГНГУ».

С 2006 года кафедра иностранных языков №1 реализует программу «Совершенствование языковой подготовки студентов ТюмГНГУ».

Акцент программы ориентирован на обучение иностранному языку на уровне практического владения им как средством межкультурной коммуникации, обеспечение возможности продолжения образования и профессиональной деятельности в иноязычной среде. Характерной особенностью программы является многоуровневая языковая подготовка с ориентацией на международные стандарты. Программа включает Федеральный компонент, соответствующий ГОС ВПО, и компонент, предполагающий обучение студентов иностранному языку с 1 по 5 курсы с увеличением аудиторных часов на 210 на 1-2 курсах и введением 324 аудиторных часов на 3-5 курсах, в результате чего студенты 1-2 курсов приобретают базовые компетенции по программе «Иностранный язык», а уровень владения иностранным языком студентов 3-5 курсов дополняется профессиональной составляющей.

Основная цель обучения по данной программе состоит в практической реализации системы многоуровневой иноязычной подготовки студентов на основе личностно-ориентированного и дифференцированного подходов, то есть обучение студентов строится в соответствии с их мотивацией, целями, потребностями, способностями к обучению иностранному языку, уровнем владения иностранным языком.

Необходимо подчеркнуть, что достоинством данной программы является то, что она совместила в себе основные требования, необходимые для успешной языковой подготовки, а именно:

- Формирование одноуровневых групп.

- Формирование малокомплектных групп.

- Увеличение сетки часов.

- Пересмотр содержания программы с учетом введения для изучения тем, необходимых для осуществления межкультурной коммуникации.

4. Обучение по программе TEMPUS в рамках проекта «Обновление лингвистической политики технических вузов России».

Данная программа реализуется с 2007 года. Целью программы является разрешение существующих противоречий между растущей потребностью в специалистах, обладающих развитой способностью к профессиональной коммуникации и практикой формирования профессиональной коммуникативной компетенции при обучении иностранному языку в неязыковом вузе.

Одним из путей решения проблемы является использование технологии совместного обучения профессиональному иностранному языку, так называемый метод «тандема», при котором занятия по специальной дисциплине проводятся совместно преподавателем выпускающей кафедры и преподавателем кафедры иностранных языков.

Технология совместного обучения профессиональному иностранному языку позволяет решать такие задачи, как:

- разработка более совершенных моделей обучения;

- повышение мотивации и интереса студентов к изучению иностранного языка;

- совершенствование профессиональной компетенции студентов за счет обеспечения тесной связи учебной и будущей профессиональной деятельности;

- приобретение студентами опыта решения коммуникативных задач в ситуациях, близких к реальным.

Новая технология обучения предусматривает создание нового методического обеспечения и использования технических средств. С этой целью преподавателями языковых и выпускающих кафедр были подготовлены и изданы курсы лекций на иностранном языке «Information security» («Защита информации»), «Modelling of management systems» («Моделирование систем управления») для проведения совместных занятий со студентами на английском языке.

5. Обучение по программе дополнительной квалификации «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации».

С 2000 года кафедра приступила к реализации программы дополнительной квалификации «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации», в учебном плане которой помимо курса практического английского языка изучаются теоретические дисциплины такие, как «Введение в языкознание», «Основы лексикологии», «Теоретическая грамматика», «Функциональная стилистика», «Теория перевода».

С целью методического обеспечения учебного процесса преподавателем кафедры Кудряшовой С.Б. был подготовлен и издан «Курс лекций по теории перевода».

Программа предусматривает обучение в течение 3-х с половиной лет. В конце обучения студенты получают диплом государственного образца.

Выпускники ТюмГНГУ, получившие дополнительную квалификацию «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации», работают в компаниях Шлюмберже, Shell, Halliburton, Лукойл и других, где успешно используют знания иностранного языка, полученные в нашем вузе.

Проблемы.

В ходе реализации многоуровневой подготовки студентов кафедра сталкивается с рядом проблем, следующие из которых, на наш взгляд, являются наиболее значимыми:

  1. Большая укомплектованность групп. Это прежде всего относится к группам студентов, изучающих английский язык.

  2. Отсутствие методического обеспечения спецкурсов для расширения работы преподавателей в тандеме, которые находятся только в стадии разработки.

  3. Необходимость обучения преподавателей выпускающих кафедр английскому языку с целью последующего чтения лекций и проведения практических занятий по специальным дисциплинам на английском языке.

Перспективы.

Как показывают результаты, уже достигнутые в процессе реализации многоуровневой подготовки студентов по иностранным языкам, данная система способствует значительному повышению интереса студентов к иностранному языку; повышению уровня владения иностранным языком у студентов, занимающихся по одной из перечисленных выше программ по сравнению с уровнем студентов, обучающихся по программе Государственного стандарта; достижению студентами уровня владения иностранным языком, позволяющим участвовать в академической мобильности и дающим возможность осуществлять профессиональную деятельность в иноязычной среде.

Дальнейшее применение технологии совместного обучения (метод «тандема») предусматривает разработку новых спецкурсов на иностранном языке, что позволяет вузу выйти на международную арену и предлагать зарубежным студентам курсы для обучения в ТюмГНГУ.


Bernd Ruschoff

Universität Duisburg-Еssen

Deutschland


SOCIAL PLATFORMS, COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATION AND PROCESS-ORIENTED LANGUAGE LEARNING

ON THE INTERNET

Abstract:

Current thinking in SLA methodology favors knowledge construction rather than simple instructivist learning as an appropriate paradigm for language learning. Within this context, project-based and task-oriented scenarios as well as collaborative tasks enhanced by social software are now regarded as the real forte of digital media. Such approaches to learning are also rooted in the output hypothesis, which argues that learners should become actively engaged in the creation of ‘comprehensible output’ in order to develop linguistically and cognitively.

This paper will discuss the principles of output orientation in language learning with particular focus on activities which make use of Web 2.0 applications. It will also consider how some of the tools available in the “new” Internet can be used to support the learners’ active engagement in developing the productive and reflective processes integral to an autonomous approach when creating text-based output. Furthermore, a few ideas for learning projects and samples of best practice will be presented in order to show how the use of digital writing tools can contribute to the quality and quantity of product as well as help to improve learners’ overall productive competencies and promote autonomy.

The backbone of this paper is a chapter published by the presenter in the Handbook of Research on Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning.9 Though the paper to be given at the ISTU conference will expand on the theoretical framework and its practical applications from an updated and current perspective, a few of the key passages of that chapter are contained in the following excerpts in order to set the scene.

Key terms

Authenticity: A concept which suggests that language learning needs to be based on real-life materials and rooted in real-world learning experiences. This includes authenticity of language, authenticity of task, authenticity of learning situation, and authenticity of interaction in language learning.

CALL & TELL: Computer Assisted Language Learning, Technology Enhanced Language Learning, acronyms which address any kind of use of computers and digital media in language learning. In contrast to terms, such as CBI (Computer Based Instruction), these terms focus on the supportive and facilitative function of the computer and stress the role of digital media as tools for learning.

Constructivism: Learning theory which focuses on learning as a cognitive process, in which knowledge is expanded on the basis of learners interactively using their prior knowledge and new information in order to generate new knowledge.

Languaging: The cognitive process of negotiating and producing meaningful , comprehensible output as part of language learning. A term coined by Merrill Swain.

Output hypothesis: The output hypothesis argue that learners should actively engage themselves in the creation of „comprehensible output“ in order to develop linguistically and cognitively.

Participatory Learning: Collaborative learning which focuses on raising learners’ awareness and competencies rather than simply supporting the learning of facts and figures.

Project-Based Learning: PBL can be described as a pedagogical approach to language learning which emphasizes learning activities that are learner-centered and offer learner product-oriented, real-life rooted tasks within a rich learning environment.

Task-Based Learning: According to Jane Willis (1996), TBL regards language learning as set of activities where the target language is used by the learners for a communicative purpose or goal in order to achieve an outcome.

Social software: Web-based software programs offered on Web 2.0, which allow users to publish, communicate, interact and share data with other users. Examples are Wikipedia, My Space, Facebook, and media platforms such as Flickr and YouTube.

Introduction:

Digital Media have had a significant impact on the way foreign languages are being taught and learned. Computer Assisted and Technology Enhanced Language Learning (CALL & TELL) have come of age. Consequently, Stephen Bax pointed out in 2003 that we are now at the stage of integrated CALL and TELL, where digital tools for learning have become integrated elements of foreign language syllabuses. In view of the development of even more flexible tools for social networking and knowledge sharing in recent years, this paper also argues that the use of CALL and TELL applications has reached the stage of normalisation as much as the so-called Web 2.0 has become a common social phenomenon. However, the impact of digital media and Web 2.0 applications is by no means restricted purely to a utilitarian level and to methodological changes in classroom practice - changes which can be observed in almost any context within which languages are learnt. Rather, the growing diversity and flexibility of digital media, together with the increased ease with which the communicative, multimedia, and networking potential of computer and internet can now be exploited, have also had a considerable influence on the deliberations concerned with the theoretical framework underlying foreign language learning methodology. Furthermore, new opportunities for research into language acquisition processes are opening up, as the tools and platforms available on the new web make traceable both the processes of creating and publishing meaningful output as well as the actual products themselves.

...

A number of (multimedia) authoring tools had emerged over the years, which allowed for greater flexibility and authenticity in the preparation and exploitation of non-textbook materials in the language classroom and beyond. However, there was still the issue of an existing technical barrier in terms of accessibility, compatibility, and user-friendliness, and the apparent upgrade of such tools to open and public resources for social networking and knowledge sharing have now led to a point where the implementation of output-oriented learning scenarios within a project-based and task-based framework is more easily manageable than in the past. It is the authors opinion that a healthy interaction between theory and practice will lead to further insight into how language learning actually works, because, as stated above, both the processes and results of learning become more tangible. Consequently, this paper will at the outset consider the specifics and the potential of the so-called Web 2.0 for language learning and finish with the description of a few suggestions for Web 2.0 enhanced learning scenarios with a clear focus on the production and sharing of output.

...

Such a discussion is closely concerned with the issue of authenticity in language learning. A number or researches into second language acquisition processes suggest that authenticity in content, context, task, and classroom interaction is "a crucial issue" in language learning methodology (cf. van Lier, 1996, p. 123). However, it needs to be kept in mind that authenticity cannot be limited to occasionally replacing the textbook with a sample of “real language”, but that true authenticity necessitates the provision of learning experiences which include authenticity of language, authenticity of task, authenticity of learning situation, and authenticity of interaction in language learning. A key term in this context is the term agency, as it encompasses both the principle of learning and the desired outcome of any kind of language learning. As far as the aims and outcomes of language learning are concerned, it is suggested that these are no longer being defined in terms of isolated skills and competencies. Rather, the overall aim of learning a language needs to be regarded in terms of an integrated set of skills and competencies which, coupled with a degree of language awareness, enable learners to become competent agents in a foreign language.

Web 2.0

The internet was always intended to be a platform for communicating, publishing, and sharing information. Consequently, it is with certain degree of justification that some colleagues ask the question whether the label Web 2.0 can be regarded as something truly new and innovative or whether it should be discarded as nothing more than a just label, cleverly introduced used as a marketing gimmick.

...

However, … it seems justified to identify as the one true distinction between the internet in its 1.0 and 2.0 shape the fact that – in view of the numerous pre-installed social software applications, public platforms and community spaces – self-installation now is less of an issue when planning output-generating internet projects for (language) learning. On a technological level, we now have an integrated platform with tools for social networking, knowledge sharing, and collaborative learning in the widest sense at our disposal. On a philosophical level, there has been a considerable development in many users’ attitudes towards the role and use of the web with a clear focus on participation, collaboration, socializing, and democracy of content and use in general. As far as the content is concerned, current buzz words are wisdom of crowds, citizen media, collective intelligence, folksonomy, and user-generated knowledge and information. Finally, it might be appropriate at this point to refer to the statement made by Prensky in 2001, referring to an noticeable generation shift from users from the earlier days of digitization, i.e. the so-called digital immigrants, to a current (and future) generation of digital natives (cf. Prensky 2001). All this, in view of the author of this paper, can be seen as a fitting setting for the implementation of collaborative, output-oriented learning experiences into language learning by means of digital media.

Output-orientation in language Learning

Agency in a methodological sense needs purpose. That is to say, language learning should be organized in scenarios which provide learners with a context which they experience as personally relevant and within which they feel a real need to act and become involved in a given task. According to Murray, Spratt, Humphreys and Chan (2002) “… suggest that teachers might develop students’ intrinsic motivation by using activities and materials that students find engaging” (Murray, 2004, p. 6). Other case studies, including a number of studies conducted by Merrill Swain, suggest that task-based and project-based learning with a clear focus on output and product have a motivating effect on learners and also contribute to the development of the levels of awareness discussed earlier in this chapter (e.g. O’Dowd, 2007). Such learning experiences are most certainly key to the cognitive growth of learners along the lines of the areas of awareness specified above. The importance of agency, authenticity, and the situated nature of learning is often stressed in recent literature, and output-orientation is often referred to as an important aspect of such an approach (cf. Swain 2007, p. 831). In a draft version of a paper on “Definining Authenticity”, Brown and Menasche (200610) propose a model of authenticity which distinguishes of five types of input authenticity and three types of task authenticity. Among these, genuine task authenticity in particular is an important issue. According to the above authors, this type of authenticity “exists when learners engage in tasks in ways and for reasons they would in the real world.”

The need to focus more on output and the kinds of process that are involved in negotiating meaningful output in language learning was originally proposed by Swain and Lapkin, who in 1995 stated that "sometimes, under some conditions, output facilitates second language learning in ways that are different from, or enhance, those of input" (Swain and Lapkin, 1995, p. 371). In more recent years, in an effort to stress the fact that research needs to focus more on the processes involved in the production of output rather than merely evaluating the quantity and quality of a given product, Swain introduced the term “languaging” as a way to refer to the use of language in learning processes to mediate cognitively complex acts of thinking. It is “the process of making meaning and shaping knowledge and experience through language” (Swain, 2006, p. 95). In a more recent paper, Swain defines the processes involved in languaging as follows: “Through languaging, defined as the use of speaking and writing to mediate cognitively complex activities, an individual develops cognitively, and … affectively. The act of producing spoken or written language is thinking in progress and is key to learners’ understanding of complex concepts” (Swain, 2007, p. 822).

Consequently, authenticity in terms of a framework for learning which stimulates languaging and agency are key elements in language learning, and such a concept is are most fruitfully put into practice in collaborative, task-based and project-oriented settings. Furthermore, it is felt that digital media have often been a key influence on the implementation of learning scenarios based on such a paradigm. It is interesting to note that research on the use of an electronic medium in writing and output-oriented learning has been major concern of those involved in TELL from its beginnings onwards. A publication which provides some insight into the processes of negotiating meaningful and comprehensible output is a volume edited by Martha C. Pennington entitles “Writing in an Electronic Medium: Research with Language Learners” published in 1999. The volume presents qualitative and quantitative studies into the use of word processing as well as e-mail communication and the creative processes involved in the creation and publication of web pages. The findings of these studies seem to confirm that even a traditional digital tool such as a word processor “… facilitate[s] the generation, revision, and dissemination of text [and] create[s] the conditions for quantitative and qualitative effects on language learners’ writing process and products” (Pennington, 1999, p. 1). The communicative aspects of negotiating meaning and collaboratively gathering information and building relationships in e-mail projects are also addressed in this volume.

Therefore, it is safe to assume that technology and web-enhanced tools even of the first generation facilitate not only access to authentic materials as well as the processing of such materials, but also the provision of authentic frameworks for learning with a focus on the production and publication of sharable output. Tschirner argues “that multimedia applications … [in general] … provide language teachers and learners with effective means to make language acquisition in the classroom viable in a way that has not been possible before the advent of powerful multimedia computers” (Tschirner, 2001, p. 305). In addition, a certain motivational effect of using technology to support output-oriented learning has been researched to some extent in the early days of CALL and TELL. The use of simple word-processing tools within group-based writing activities together with the significant impact on awareness raising, strategy building, and quality of text was reported on even before Pennington’s publication by Legenhausen & Wolff as early as 1991. Warschauer discusses similar research in his paper on motivational aspects of using computers for writing and communication in 1996 (cf. Warschauer, 1996, pp. 29ff). And Felix argues that “one of the great strengths of the Web is the potential to engage students in creative information gap activities and real experiential learning in the form of meaningful, process oriented projects in authentic setting” (Felix, 2002, p. 2). This paper also draws evidence for such a claim from various other sources, including an overview of the literature as well as samples of best-practice as well as some research-oriented case studies conducted at the author’s institution. It is interesting to note that Felix identifies the need for CALL and TELL to focus on creating connectivity rather than content as the real potential for the integration of digital media into language learning even before the term Web 2.0 was coined. In the following, this paper sets out to explore, where and how the tools the new web has to offer can be of benefit for language learning experiences rooted in the theoretical and methodological framework outlined above.

Social Software and participatory learning

As alluded above, agency necessitates urgency, i.e. learners need to feel the need to become actively involved in learning scenarios they consider as valid, valuable, and purposeful. This is, in fact, where some advocates of digital media, including the author, see the real potential for the exploitation of the kinds of tools and social software available on Web 2.0. Projects with the aim of producing and “broadcasting” podcasts in a given target language could be referred to in order exemplify this aspect in a general sense. Audio production in the form of recording and sharing materials within a classroom has a long tradition within language learning. However, setting up a group’s own “radio programme” on one of the podcasting platforms available on the internet has a more authentic quality. Here, learners are encouraged to share with a real audience topics or experiences that are of concern to them on a regular basis. They not only produce and publish “radio clips” and other kinds of broadcasts on a public podcasting “station” – the feedback that “listeners” often provide by e-mail can be integrated into follow-up activities in the classroom. There are already numerous examples of such activities available from around the world. The international podcasting workshop for German as a Foreign Language at the Technical University Berlin (http://skbpodcast.podspot.de/) might serve as a first example – a site on which foreign students produce podcasts as part of their coursework on a regular basis. As far as English as a Foreign Language is concerned, a wiki created by the ELT Podcasting group (http://pod-efl.wikispaces.com/) to support the Podcasting for ELT session at TESOL's Electronic Village Online (EVO) provides access to numerous examples from around the world. Furthermore, a Podasting Review is a regular feature of the The CALL Review, i.e. the journal of the IATEFL Learning Technologies SIG, available at http://ltsig.org.uk/ .

Apart from podcasting, the participatory nature of the internet in its current Web 2.0 format offers a large number of options for output-oriented language learning opportunities. The challenges involved where summarized by Ravi Purushotma in an online publication in 2005, where he states: “With live materials and customized social applications becoming increasingly available to non-programmers, the primary challenge will be to find models for how to connect various web applications together into coherent learning experiences” (Purushotma 2005). Despite the fact that the web has always been regarded by many as a valuable access-point to up-to-date authentic materials, there is a new quality to the kinds of materials available on the “new” web. In view of the fact that individuals from almost any walk of life publish and share very personal information there is a noticeable increase in the possible options in which such materials can be made relevant in the language classroom. Text-based blogs, for example, together with audio or video blogs could be a valuable resource. Learners can be offered real texts in the form of blogs etc. which are authored by people with a very individual touch and intended to share opinions, experiences, and viewpoints. Such electronics texts offer a more personal insight into the cultural and social contexts within which the target language is used. But the exploitation of materials available on the web is only one option to integrate digital media into language learning experiences. In the following, a few projects-based scenarios will be outlined in order to demonstrate where the potential of Web 2.0 for the implementation of coherent and motivating learning experiences with a focus on output production might lie. These suggestions are based on some of the projects and case-studies conducted in the author’s department at Duisburg-Essen University.

Blog and wiki spaces, easily set up by means of numerous platforms and social software on the internet, offer opportunities for creative and cooperative language learning similar to the ones described in the paragraph on podcasting. Following the model of Wikipedia it is now possible to set up a wiki, i.e. a web-platform for collaborative writing and sharing information, and such platforms can be integrated into output-oriented learning scenarios with great ease. Wiki can be set up for any kind of collaborative project and can be described as true collaborative environments. A wiki space for use within a classroom project can be set up on existing platforms for educational purposes which are hosted and made available on the internet by a growing number of providers. Alternatively, one can download one of the many existing versions of wiki software modelled on the software engine driving the original Wikipedia and install this on one’s own server. The advantage of a wiki created and maintained as part of tele-cooperative writing and information gathering activities is the fact that such a workspace is a lot easier to set up and maintain when compared with web projects or webquests.

A first example refers to recent project undertaken in cooperation with a comprehensive school in Essen as a pilot in preparation for a more extensive research initiative into the effects of wiki-based collaborative writing activities on language learning. The project focused on the topic of “needs & wants” in terms of how media and advertising as well as social contexts have an effect on why and how a person considers certain material or spiritual matters as necessary and important. The group of learners involved was a class of 11 year olds with English and Economics as the subjects in a bilingual CLIL (Content Language Integrated Learning) track. In order to become prepared for the kind of writing needed to successfully contribute to a wiki, learners initially authored and published a personal profile, including a description of their own sets of values, needs, and wants. In a next step, the teams were then assigned the task to write a wiki entry on where they see the most significant influences on their personal needs and wants. Obviously, advertising and commercials were an important aspect of the topic. Consequently, each team had to search Youtube and look at video advertisements for a product reflecting the needs and wants identified in their texts with the aim of selecting one ad which the team members considered as particularly effective. The next task was the writing of a statement on the ad of their choice to be published on the wiki together with a link to the video clip on Youtube.

In an effort to integrate other social software tools into the project, the learners were asked to script and produce their own advertisement for a product of their choice in the form of a video or audio clip. In the next phase of this type of project, to be further developed in the course of the coming school year, it is planned to publish such results on a videocasting or podcasting platform and invite students from the school’s partner institutions in other countries to join the platform and share their views and comments on the materials produced and published. The comments received from both the teacher and learners did confirm a few of the assumptions identified in this paper. Learners did feel more involved in the learning experience as the need to publish and share was seen both as a tremendous challenge and as a motivational factor. The tasks were accepted as real and relevant, and the processes of negotiating the teams’ output led to a noticeable increase in the quality of the written products. Finally, both the teacher and the class volunteered without hesitation to participate in the next phase of the project.

… Further examples will be discussed in the actual paper

Conclusion

As far as exploiting Web 2.0 tools is concerned, this paper suggests that social software, wikespaces as well as platforms for the publication of podcasts or videocasts, might be an option to broaden the scope of output-oriented project work in language learning. ... As, for example, Johnshoy & Kato (2008) put it, wiki-enhanced learning is an option to offer learners the opportunity to “create their own products [and] to demonstrate what they know and can do in the target language.”

...

Obviously, the examples mentioned in this paper represent only a small selection of how digital media in the form of the kind of social software offered on Web 2.0 can be integrated into language learning scenarios. Of course, there numerous alternative and additional ideas being put into practice by teachers in schools and other educational institutions around the world. Podcasting, blogs, wikis as well as the exploitation of platforms such as YouTube or myspace, to name but a few, are increasingly beginning to enter the standard repertoire of language teaching and learning. However, the ideas put forward here are intended to provide some additional stimulus for the development of further ideas on how to create output-oriented scenarios for language learning with the aid of digital media. As said at the outset of this paper, its purpose was to elaborate on the theoretical framework currently discussed as a potential basis for the use of digital media and for assessing the innovative potential of the “new” Web 2.0. Furthermore, the examples given were chosen to demonstrate the practicability of integrating digital media into flexible and learner-oriented language learning scenarios with a focus on stimulating meaning negotiation and output production. There is growing support for the theoretical perspectives and practical implications outlined in this paper. Merrill Swain put it, “participation has found its place alongside acquisition” (Swain & Deters, 2007, p. 831). The challenge that needs to be faced, with regard to the full integration of digital media into language learning, is to define appropriate frameworks for research into the actual processes that learners go through when participating in learning opportunities of the kind outlined in this paper. Such research is much needed in order to broaden the understanding of the effects and effectiveness of digital media in output-oriented, creative and participatory language learning.

All References are available in the original paper. 11


А.В. Федорюк

Восточно-Сибирская государственная академия образования

г. Иркутск, Россия

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